Tag Archives: TOP25

Impact of clinical severity of stroke on the severity and recovery of visuospatial neglect.

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Impact of clinical severity of stroke on the severity and recovery of visuospatial neglect.
PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0198755
Authors: Nijboer TCW, Winters C, Kollen BJ, Kwakkel G
Abstract
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Purinergic modulation of glutamate transmission: An expanding role in stress-linked neuropathology.

Purinergic modulation of glutamate transmission: An expanding role in stress-linked neuropathology.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 Jun 27;:
Authors: Mayhew J, Graham BA, Biber K, Nilsson M, Walker FR
Abstract
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Setting PEEP in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Cookbook or Individualized Titration?

Setting PEEP in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Cookbook or Individualized Titration?
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Jun 29;:
Authors: Koopman AA, Kneyber MCJ
PMID: 29958026 [PubMed – as suppl… Continue reading

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Low recurrence rate of head and neck basal cell carcinoma treated with Mohs micrographic surgery: A retrospective study of 1021 cases.

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Low recurrence rate of head and neck basal cell carcinoma treated with Mohs micrographic surgery: A retrospective study of 1021 cases.
Clin Otolaryngol. 2018 Jun 28;:
Authors: Kuiper EM, van den Berge… Continue reading

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Cortisol during adolescence organises personality traits and behavioural syndromes.

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Cortisol during adolescence organises personality traits and behavioural syndromes.

Horm Behav. 2018 Jun 25;:

Authors: Guenther A, Groothuis AGG, Krüger O, Goerlich-Jansson VC

Abstract
Despite the growing evidence for the importance of developmental experiences shaping consistent individual differences in behaviour and physiology, the role of endocrine factors underlying the development and maintenance of such differences across multiple traits, remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated how an experimental manipulation of circulating glucocorticoids during early adolescence affects behavioural and physiological variation and covariation later in life in the precocial cavy (Cavia aperea). Plasma cortisol concentrations were experimentally elevated by administering cortisol via food for 3 weeks. Struggle docility, escape latency, boldness, exploration and social behaviour were then tested three times after individuals attained sexual maturity. In addition, blood samples were taken repeatedly to monitor circulating cortisol concentrations. Exogenous cortisol affected mean trait expression of plasma cortisol levels, struggle docility and escape latency. Repeatability of cortisol and escape latency was increased and repeatability of struggle docility tended to be higher (approaching significance) in treated individuals. Increased repeatability was mainly caused by an increase of among-individual variance. Correlations among docility, escape latency and cortisol were stronger in treated animals compared to control animals. These results suggest that exposure to elevated levels of cortisol during adolescence can alter animal personality traits as well as behavioural syndromes. Social and risk-taking traits showed no correlation with cortisol levels and were unaffected by the experimental manipulation, indicating behavioural modularity. Taken together, our data highlight that cortisol can have organising effects during adolescence on the development of personality traits and behavioural syndromes, adding to the increasing evidence that not only early life but also adolescence is an important sensitive period for behavioural development.

PMID: 29953885 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Autoimmune Diseases: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

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Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Autoimmune Diseases: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
Semin Thromb Hemost. 2018 Jun 28;:
Authors: Borjas-Howard JF, Leeuw K, Rutgers A, Meijer K, Tich… Continue reading

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The causes and consequences of variation in human cytokine production in health.

The causes and consequences of variation in human cytokine production in health.

Curr Opin Immunol. 2018 Jun 15;54:50-58

Authors: Schirmer M, Kumar V, Netea MG, Xavier RJ

Abstract
Cytokines are important cell-signaling molecules that activate and modulate immune responses. Major factors influencing cytokine variation in healthy individuals are host genetics, non-heritable factors and the microbiome. Genetic variation accounts for a significant part of heterogeneity in cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Variation in cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-6Ra is strongly influenced by heritability, suggesting an evolutionarily pressure for their genetic regulation that potentially contributes to differences in immune responsiveness between human populations. Non-heritable factors, including age, body weight and environmental variables such as seasonality, drive variation in baseline cytokine levels. Age further affects pathogen-induced lymphocyte-derived cytokine responses, whereas seasonality affects monocyte-derived cytokine production in response to influenza virus, Coxiella burnetti or Cryptococcus neoformans. Another influential factor that shapes the immune system is the human microbiome. Microbes and microbial products (e.g. short-chain fatty acids and tryptophan metabolites) possess strong immunomodulatory effects, induce regulatory T cells and lead to the diversification of B cells and the production of specific antibodies. In particular, differential TNFα and IFNγ production is associated with the gut microbiome. Understanding causes of variation in the healthy human immune system can reveal factors that lead to aberrant cytokine production in immune-related disorders.

PMID: 29913309 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Development and validation of a clinical prediction tool to estimate the individual risk of depressive relapse or recurrence in individuals with recurrent depression.

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Development and validation of a clinical prediction tool to estimate the individual risk of depressive relapse or recurrence in individuals with recurrent depression.

J Psychiatr Res. 2018 Jun 08;104:1-7

Authors: Klein NS, Holtman GA, Bockting CLH, Heymans MW, Burger H

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Many studies examined predictors of depressive relapse/recurrence but no simple tool based on well-established risk factors is available that estimates the risk within an individual. We developed and validated such a prediction tool in remitted recurrently depressed individuals.
METHODS: The tool was developed using data (n = 235) from a pragmatic randomised controlled trial in remitted recurrently depressed participants and externally validated using data (n = 209) from a similar randomised controlled trial of remitted recurrently depressed participants using maintenance antidepressants. Cox regression was used with time to relapse/recurrence within 2 years as outcome and well-established risk factors as predictors. Performance measures and absolute risk scores were calculated, a practically applicable risk score was created, and the tool was externally validated.
RESULTS: The 2-year cumulative proportion relapse/recurrence was 46.2% in the validation dataset. The tool included number of previous depressive episodes, residual depressive symptoms, severity of the last depressive episode, and treatment. The C-statistic and calibration slope were 0.56 and 0.81 respectively. The tool stratified participants into relapse/recurrence risk classes of 37%, 55%, and 72%. The C-statistic and calibration slope in the external validation were 0.59 and 0.56 respectively, and Kaplan Meier curves showed that the tool could differentiate between risk classes.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that developed a simple prediction tool based on well-established risk factors of depressive relapse/recurrence, estimating the individual risk. Since the overall performance of the model was poor, more studies are needed to enhance the performance before recommending implementation into clinical practice.

PMID: 29908389 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Delivery System for Budesonide Based on Lipid-DNA.

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Delivery System for Budesonide Based on Lipid-DNA.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2018 Jun 14;:
Authors: Liu Y, Bos IST, Oenema TA, Meurs H, Maarsingh H, Hirsch AKH
Abstract
Budesonide is a hyd… Continue reading

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Toxicological risk assessment and prioritization of drinking water relevant contaminants of emerging concern.

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Toxicological risk assessment and prioritization of drinking water relevant contaminants of emerging concern.

Environ Int. 2018 Jun 13;118:293-303

Authors: Baken KA, Sjerps RMA, Schriks M, van Wezel AP

Abstract
Toxicological risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in (sources of) drinking water is required to identify potential health risks and prioritize chemicals for abatement or monitoring. In such assessments, concentrations of chemicals in drinking water or sources are compared to either (i) health-based (statutory) drinking water guideline values, (ii) provisional guideline values based on recent toxicity data in absence of drinking water guidelines, or (iii) generic drinking water target values in absence of toxicity data. Here, we performed a toxicological risk assessment for 163 CEC that were selected as relevant for drinking water. This relevance was based on their presence in drinking water and/or groundwater and surface water sources in downstream parts of the Rhine and Meuse, in combination with concentration levels and physicochemical properties. Statutory and provisional drinking water guideline values could be derived from publically available toxicological information for 142 of the CEC. Based on measured concentrations it was concluded that the majority of substances do not occur in concentrations which individually pose an appreciable human health risk. A health concern could however not be excluded for vinylchloride, trichloroethene, bromodichloromethane, aniline, phenol, 2-chlorobenzenamine, mevinphos, 1,4-dioxane, and nitrolotriacetic acid. For part of the selected substances, toxicological risk assessment for drinking water could not be performed since either toxicity data (hazard) or drinking water concentrations (exposure) were lacking. In absence of toxicity data, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach can be applied for screening level risk assessment. The toxicological information on the selected substances was used to evaluate whether drinking water target values based on existing TTC levels are sufficiently protective for drinking water relevant CEC. Generic drinking water target levels of 37 μg/L for Cramer class I substances and 4 μg/L for Cramer class III substances in drinking water were derived based on these CEC. These levels are in line with previously reported generic drinking water target levels based on original TTC values and are shown to be protective for health effects of the majority of contaminants of emerging concern evaluated in the present study. Since the human health impact of many chemicals appearing in the water cycle has been studied insufficiently, generic drinking water target levels are useful for early warning and prioritization of CEC with unknown toxicity in drinking water and its sources for future monitoring.

PMID: 29909348 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Why don’t segregated Roma do more for their health? An explanatory framework from an ethnographic study in Slovakia.

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Why don’t segregated Roma do more for their health? An explanatory framework from an ethnographic study in Slovakia.

Int J Public Health. 2018 Jun 16;:

Authors: Belak A, Madarasova Geckova A, van Dijk JP, Reijneveld SA

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The health status of segregated Roma is poor. To understand why segregated Roma engage in health-endangering practices, we explored their nonadherence to clinical and public health recommendations.
METHODS: We examined one segregated Roma settlement of 260 inhabitants in Slovakia. To obtain qualitative data on local-level mechanisms supporting Roma nonadherence, we combined ethnography and systematic interviewing over 10 years. We then performed a qualitative content analysis based on sociological and public health theories.
RESULTS: Our explanatory framework summarizes how the nonadherence of local Roma was supported by an interlocked system of seven mechanisms, controlled by and operating through both local Roma and non-Roma. These regard the Roma situation of poverty, segregation and substandard infrastructure; the Roma socialization into their situation; the Roma-perceived value of Roma alternative practices; the exclusionary non-Roma and self-exclusionary Roma ideologies; the discrimination, racism and dysfunctional support towards Roma by non-Roma; and drawbacks in adherence.
CONCLUSIONS: Non-Roma ideologies, internalized by Roma into a racialized ethnic identity through socialization, and drawbacks in adherence might present powerful, yet neglected, mechanisms supporting segregated Roma nonadherence.

PMID: 29909522 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: from mechanisms to therapies.

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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: from mechanisms to therapies.
Eur Heart J. 2018 Jun 13;:
Authors: Lam CSP, Voors AA, de Boer RA, Solomon SD, van Veldhuisen DJ
Abstract
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Common Disease Is More Complex Than Implied by the Core Gene Omnigenic Model.

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Common Disease Is More Complex Than Implied by the Core Gene Omnigenic Model.
Cell. 2018 Jun 14;173(7):1573-1580
Authors: Wray NR, Wijmenga C, Sullivan PF, Yang J, Visscher PM
Abstract
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Internists’ dilemmas in their interactions with chronically ill patients; A comparison of their interaction strategies and dilemmas in two different medical contexts.

Internists’ dilemmas in their interactions with chronically ill patients; A comparison of their interaction strategies and dilemmas in two different medical contexts.
PLoS One. 2018;13(5):e0194133
Authors: Kromme NMH… Continue reading

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Non-LDL dyslipidemia is prevalent in the young and determined by lifestyle factors and age: The LifeLines cohort.

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Non-LDL dyslipidemia is prevalent in the young and determined by lifestyle factors and age: The LifeLines cohort.

Atherosclerosis. 2018 May 21;274:191-198

Authors: de Vries JK, Balder JW, Pena MJ, Denig P, Smit AJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-LDL dyslipidemia (NLD) confers cardiovascular risk, and prevalence rates appear to be high in elderly populations. Small cohorts have identified several lifestyle, anthropometric, and medical factors associated with NLD. We aimed to assess sex- and age-specific prevalence of NLD in a contemporary population cohort (n = 167 729), and to identify independent determinants of NLD, focusing on lifestyle, anthropometric, and medical factors.
METHODS: The prevalence of NLD was assessed per 10-year age intervals in adults without cardiovascular disease not using lipid-modifying drugs from the Dutch LifeLines cohort. NLD was defined as low HDL-cholesterol or high triglycerides or high remnant cholesterol as per guideline cut-off values. Multivariable regression was used to identify factors independently associated with NLD. Determinants included age, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, diet, BMI, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease, and in women, menopausal state and oral contraceptive use.
RESULTS: NLD occurred in 15-19% of women and 13-30% of men in this cohort, with the highest prevalence of 30% in 35-55 year old men. In most age groups, the prevalence in women was lower than in men. Obesity (both sexes: Odds ratio (OR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 5.0-5.7), current smoking (men: OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.7-1.9; women OR 2.2, 95%CI 2.1-2.3), and DM (men: OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.8-2.6; women: OR 2.7, 95%CI 2.3-3.1) were strongly associated with NLD.
CONCLUSIONS: NLD already occurs frequently at an early age. Modifiable lifestyle choices, obesity, and DM were strong determinants of NLD. Public health efforts could substantially contribute to decrease NLD.

PMID: 29793176 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Differentiating between ADHD and ASD in childhood: some directions for practitioners.

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Differentiating between ADHD and ASD in childhood: some directions for practitioners.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 May 12;:
Authors: Rommelse N, Visser J, Hartman C
PMID: 29754280 [PubM… Continue reading

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The importance of contextual, relational and cognitive factors for novice nurses’ emotional state and affective commitment to the profession. A multilevel study.

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The importance of contextual, relational and cognitive factors for novice nurses’ emotional state and affective commitment to the profession. A multilevel study.
J Adv Nurs. 2018 May 13;:
Authors: Ho… Continue reading

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Early human motor development: From variation to the ability to vary and adapt.

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Early human motor development: From variation to the ability to vary and adapt.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 May 09;:
Authors: Hadders-Algra M
Abstract
This review summarizes early huma… Continue reading

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Determinants of Heart Rate Variability in the General Population: The Lifelines Cohort Study Determinants of Heart Rate Variability.

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Determinants of Heart Rate Variability in the General Population: The Lifelines Cohort Study Determinants of Heart Rate Variability.
Heart Rhythm. 2018 May 09;:
Authors: Tegegne BS, Man T, van Roon AM… Continue reading

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Perceptual Discrimination of Speaking Style Under Cochlear Implant Simulation.

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Perceptual Discrimination of Speaking Style Under Cochlear Implant Simulation.

Ear Hear. 2018 May 08;:

Authors: Tamati TN, Janse E, Başkent D

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Real-life, adverse listening conditions involve a great deal of speech variability, including variability in speaking style. Depending on the speaking context, talkers may use a more casual, reduced speaking style or a more formal, careful speaking style. Attending to fine-grained acoustic-phonetic details characterizing different speaking styles facilitates the perception of the speaking style used by the talker. These acoustic-phonetic cues are poorly encoded in cochlear implants (CIs), potentially rendering the discrimination of speaking style difficult. As a first step to characterizing CI perception of real-life speech forms, the present study investigated the perception of different speaking styles in normal-hearing (NH) listeners with and without CI simulation.
DESIGN: The discrimination of three speaking styles (conversational reduced speech, speech from retold stories, and carefully read speech) was assessed using a speaking style discrimination task in two experiments. NH listeners classified sentence-length utterances, produced in one of the three styles, as either formal (careful) or informal (conversational). Utterances were presented with unmodified speaking rates in experiment 1 (31 NH, young adult Dutch speakers) and with modified speaking rates set to the average rate across all utterances in experiment 2 (28 NH, young adult Dutch speakers). In both experiments, acoustic noise-vocoder simulations of CIs were used to produce 12-channel (CI-12) and 4-channel (CI-4) vocoder simulation conditions, in addition to a no-simulation condition without CI simulation.
RESULTS: In both experiments 1 and 2, NH listeners were able to reliably discriminate the speaking styles without CI simulation. However, this ability was reduced under CI simulation. In experiment 1, participants showed poor discrimination of speaking styles under CI simulation. Listeners used speaking rate as a cue to make their judgements, even though it was not a reliable cue to speaking style in the study materials. In experiment 2, without differences in speaking rate among speaking styles, listeners showed better discrimination of speaking styles under CI simulation, using additional cues to complete the task.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the present study demonstrate that perceiving differences in three speaking styles under CI simulation is a difficult task because some important cues to speaking style are not fully available in these conditions. While some cues like speaking rate are available, this information alone may not always be a reliable indicator of a particular speaking style. Some other reliable speaking styles cues, such as degraded acoustic-phonetic information and variability in speaking rate within an utterance, may be available but less salient. However, as in experiment 2, listeners’ perception of speaking styles may be modified if they are constrained or trained to use these additional cues, which were more reliable in the context of the present study. Taken together, these results suggest that dealing with speech variability in real-life listening conditions may be a challenge for CI users.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

PMID: 29742545 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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