Tag Archives: TOP25

Cholesterol Absorption and Synthesis in Vegetarians and Omnivores.

Cholesterol Absorption and Synthesis in Vegetarians and Omnivores.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Feb 10;:

Authors: Lütjohann D, Meyer S, von Bergmann K, Stellaard F

Abstract
SCOPE: Vegetarian diets are considered health promoting, however, a plasma cholesterol lowering effect is not always observed. We investigated the link between vegetarian diet-induced alterations in cholesterol metabolism.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied male and female omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians and vegans. Cholesterol intake, absorption and fecal sterol excretion were measured as well as plasma concentrations of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols. These served as markers for cholesterol absorption, synthesis and catabolism. The biliary cholesterol secretion rate was estimated. Flux data were related to bodyweight. Individual vegetarian diet groups were statistically compared to the omnivore group. Lacto vegetarians absorbed 44% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 22% more cholesterol and showed no differences in plasma total and LDL cholesterol. Vegan subjects absorbed 90% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 35% more cholesterol and had a similar plasma total cholesterol, but a 13% lower plasma LDL cholesterol. No diet-related differences in biliary cholesterol secretion and absorption were observed. Total cholesterol absorption was lower only in vegans. Total cholesterol input was similar under all vegetarian diets.
CONCLUSIONS: Unaltered biliary cholesterol secretion and higher cholesterol synthesis blunt the lowered dietary cholesterol intake in vegetarians. LDL cholesterol was significantly lower only in vegans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 29427539 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Navigating the Complexities of Undergraduate Medical Curriculum Change: Change Leaders’ Perspectives.

Navigating the Complexities of Undergraduate Medical Curriculum Change: Change Leaders’ Perspectives.
Acad Med. 2018 Feb 06;:
Authors: Velthuis F, Varpio L, Helmich E, Dekker H, Jaarsma ADC
Abstract
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Malaria in Venezuela requires response.

Malaria in Venezuela requires response.
Science. 2018 Feb 02;359(6375):528
Authors: Grillet ME, Villegas L, Oletta JF, Tami A, Conn JE
PMID: 29420282 [PubMed – in process]

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Biceps Autograft Augmentation for Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review.

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Biceps Autograft Augmentation for Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review.

Arthroscopy. 2018 Jan 17;:

Authors: Veen EJD, Stevens M, Diercks RL

Abstract
PURPOSE: To improve surgical outcomes in patients with massive cuff defects, different techniques and augmentations are proposed. The biceps tendon is easily available as an autograft. Our aim was to conduct a qualitative systematic review of various methods and surgical techniques that use a biceps autograft (BAG) for rotator cuff repair. Functional outcomes are also reported. We hypothesized that by using a BAG to treat massive rotator cuff tears, a more anatomic and biomechanical reconstruction could be achieved compared with other techniques.
METHODS: A qualitative systematic review was conducted (MEDLINE and Embase databases) to inventory surgical techniques for use of a BAG for rotator cuff repair. The following search terms were used for MEDLINE: biceps AND (augment* OR autograft* OR transplantation* OR (cuff AND graft*) OR biceps-incorporat*). Studies were included if the following criteria were fulfilled: description of surgical technique, only human subjects, functional outcomes noted, all study designs except technical notes, and no restrictions on study date. The quality of the studies was assessed in a standardized manner using a tool based on the Cochrane handbook.
RESULTS: We identified 981 studies; among these, 8 case series met the inclusion criteria. We identified 6 studies as high quality and 2 as medium quality. Different techniques for harvest and augmentation were used. Some studies left the proximal or distal portion intact, whereas others used it as a free graft. The clinical results of these studies showed significantly improved function, pain relief, and range of motion at follow-up, although this was not compared with a control group. The constructs were intact on magnetic resonance imaging in most patients (82%) within 2 years.
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that use of a BAG is an option for augmentation in massive rotator cuff tears, although no definitive recommendations can be given. This is based on Level IV medium- and high-quality studies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies.

PMID: 29373293 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Yeast cells contain a heterogeneous population of peroxisomes that segregate asymmetrically during cell division.

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Yeast cells contain a heterogeneous population of peroxisomes that segregate asymmetrically during cell division.
J Cell Sci. 2017 Dec 21;:
Authors: Kumar S, de Boer R, van der Klei IJ
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Magnificent magpie colours by feathers with layers of hollow melanosomes.

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Magnificent magpie colours by feathers with layers of hollow melanosomes.
J Exp Biol. 2017 Dec 28;:
Authors: Stavenga DG, Leertouwer HL, Wilts BD
Abstract
The blue secondary and purple… Continue reading

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Non-digestible carbohydrates in infant formula as substitution for human milk oligosaccharide functions: Effects on microbiota and gut maturation.

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Non-digestible carbohydrates in infant formula as substitution for human milk oligosaccharide functions: Effects on microbiota and gut maturation.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Jan 15;:1-12
Authors: A… Continue reading

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A non-heme iron photocatalyst for light driven aerobic oxidation of methanol.

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A non-heme iron photocatalyst for light driven aerobic oxidation of methanol.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 Jan 15;:

Authors: Browne WR, Chen J, Draksharapu A, Gruden M, Stepanovic S

Abstract
The non-heme (L)FeIII and (L)FeIII-O-FeIII(L) complexes (L = 1,1-di(pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethan-1-amine) undergoes reduction under irradiation to the FeII state with concomitant oxidation of methanol to methanal, without the need for a secondary photosensitizer. Spectroscopic and Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies support a mechanism in which irradiation results in charge transfer excitation of a FeIII--O-FeIII complex to generate [(L)FeIV=O]2+ (observed transiently during irradiation in acetonitrile), and an equivalent of LFeII. Under aerobic conditions, irradiation accelerates reoxidation from the FeII to FeIII state with O2 closing the cycle of methanol oxidation to methanal.

PMID: 29334586 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Home alone: a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of individual housing on body weight, food intake and visceral fat mass in rodents.

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Home alone: a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of individual housing on body weight, food intake and visceral fat mass in rodents.
Obes Rev. 2018 Jan 15;:
Authors: Schipper L, Harve… Continue reading

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Dynamics of dignity and safety: a discussion.

Dynamics of dignity and safety: a discussion.
BMJ Qual Saf. 2018 Jan 13;:
Authors: Goodwin D, Mesman J, Verkerk M, Grant S
PMID: 29331954 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Myocardial oedema and congestive heart failure: one piece of the puzzle? Reply.

Myocardial oedema and congestive heart failure: one piece of the puzzle? Reply.
Eur J Heart Fail. 2018 Jan 10;:
Authors: Gorter TM, de Boer RA
PMID: 29319924 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Public stigma of prolonged grief disorder: An experimental study.

Public stigma of prolonged grief disorder: An experimental study.
Psychiatry Res. 2018 Jan 02;261:173-177
Authors: Eisma MC
Abstract
Prolonged grief disorder (PGD), characterized by severe, persistent… Continue reading

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Do Surrogate Endpoints Better Correlate with Overall Survival in Studies That Did Not Allow for Crossover or Reported Balanced Postprogression Treatments? An Application in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

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Do Surrogate Endpoints Better Correlate with Overall Survival in Studies That Did Not Allow for Crossover or Reported Balanced Postprogression Treatments? An Application in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Value Health. 2018 Jan;21(1):9-17

Authors: Hashim M, Pfeiffer BM, Bartsch R, Postma M, Heeg B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In previous studies, correlation between overall survival (OS) and surrogate endpoints like objective response rate (ORR) or progression-free survival (PFS) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was poor. This can be biased by crossover and postprogression treatments.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between these two surrogate endpoints and OS in advanced NSCLC studies that did not allow for crossover or reported balanced post-progression treatments.
METHODS: A systematic review in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving second- and further-line therapy was performed. The relationship between the absolute difference in ORR or median PFS (mPFS) and the absolute difference in median OS (mOS) was assessed using the correlation coefficient (R) and weighted regression models. The analysis was repeated in predefined data cuts based on crossover and balance of postprogression treatments. When the upper limit of R’s 95% confidence interval (CI) was more than 0.7, the surrogate threshold effect (STE) was estimated.
RESULTS: In total, 146 randomized clinical trials (43,061 patients) were included. The mean ORR, mPFS, and mOS were 12.2% ± 11.2%, 3.2 ± 1.3 months, and 9.6 ± 4.1 months, respectively. The correlation coefficients of ORR and mPFS were 0.181 (95% CI 0.016-0.337) and 0.254 (95% CI 0.074-0.418), respectively, with mOS. Nevertheless, in trials that did not allow crossover and reported balanced postprogression treatments, the correlation coefficients of ORR and mPFS were 0.528 (95% CI 0.081-0.798) and 0.778 (95% CI 0.475-0.916), respectively, with mOS. On the basis of STE estimation, in trials showing significant treatment effect size of 41.0% or more ORR or 4.15 or more mPFS months, OS benefit can be expected with sufficient certainty.
CONCLUSIONS: Crossover and postprogression treatments may bias the relationship between surrogate endpoints and OS. Presented STE calculation can be used to interpret treatment effect on either ORR or PFS when used as primary endpoints.

PMID: 29304946 [PubMed – in process]

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Heart rate variability and its relation to chronic kidney disease: Results from the PREVEND Study.

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Heart rate variability and its relation to chronic kidney disease: Results from the PREVEND Study.

Psychosom Med. 2018 Jan 02;:

Authors: Thio CHL, van Roon AM, Lefrandt JD, Gansevoort RT, Snieder H

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In the general population, reduced heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, its relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is debated. We therefore investigated the relation between low HRV and renal outcomes.
METHODS: In the population-based PREVEND Study, renal outcomes (CKD, eGFR, urinary albumin) were measured at baseline and three consecutive examinations. HRV measures (among which SDNN, standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR-intervals) were calculated from time-series of beat-to-beat pulse-wave recordings at baseline. The lowest (risk) quartile was compared to the upper three quartiles combined, in multivariable survival and linear mixed-effects analyses.
RESULTS: In 4,605 participants (49% males, age range 33-80, 0.6% blacks), we observed 341 new cases of CKD during a median follow-up duration of 7.4 years. Low SDNN was associated with higher incidence of CKD (crude HR: 1.66, 95%CI [1.30;2.12], p<0.001), but this association was no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors (adjusted HR: 1.13, 95%CI [0.86;1.48], p=0.40, similar for other HRV measures). No associations between SDNN and eGFR trajectories were found in the total sample. However, in a subgroup of participants with baseline CKD (N=939), we found a significant association of low SDNN (but not other HRV measures) with lower baseline eGFR, even after multivariable adjustment (adjusted βlevel difference=-3.73 ml/min/1.73m, 95%CI [-6.70;-0.75], p=0.014), but not with steeper eGFR decline.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that reduced HRV may be a complication of CKD rather than a causal factor.

PMID: 29298214 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Occurrence, biochemistry and biological effects of host-selective plant mycotoxins.

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Occurrence, biochemistry and biological effects of host-selective plant mycotoxins.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Dec 27;:
Authors: Petrov V, Qureshi MK, Hille J, Gechev T
PMID: 29288760 [PubMed – a… Continue reading

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45,180 ways to have “persistent complex bereavement disorder” yet only 48 ways to have “prolonged grief disorder”.

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45,180 ways to have “persistent complex bereavement disorder” yet only 48 ways to have “prolonged grief disorder”.
Psychiatry Res. 2017 Dec 20;261:88-89
Authors: Lenferink LIM, Eisma MC
Abstra… Continue reading

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Cholesterol Transport Revisited: A New Turbo Mechanism to Drive Cholesterol Excretion.

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Cholesterol Transport Revisited: A New Turbo Mechanism to Drive Cholesterol Excretion.
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Dec 21;:
Authors: de Boer JF, Kuipers F, Groen AK
Abstract
A fine-t… Continue reading

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Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks.

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Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks.

Nat Genet. 2018 Jan;50(1):42-53

Authors: Demenais F, Margaritte-Jeannin P, Barnes KC, Cookson WOC, Altmüller J, Ang W, Barr RG, Beaty TH, Becker AB, Beilby J, Bisgaard H, Bjornsdottir US, Bleecker E, Bønnelykke K, Boomsma DI, Bouzigon E, Brightling CE, Brossard M, Brusselle GG, Burchard E, Burkart KM, Bush A, Chan-Yeung M, Chung KF, Couto Alves A, Curtin JA, Custovic A, Daley D, de Jongste JC, Del-Rio-Navarro BE, Donohue KM, Duijts L, Eng C, Eriksson JG, Farrall M, Fedorova Y, Feenstra B, Ferreira MA, Australian Asthma Genetics Consortium (AAGC) collaborators, Freidin MB, Gajdos Z, Gauderman J, Gehring U, Geller F, Genuneit J, Gharib SA, Gilliland F, Granell R, Graves PE, Gudbjartsson DF, Haahtela T, Heckbert SR, Heederik D, Heinrich J, Heliövaara M, Henderson J, Himes BE, Hirose H, Hirschhorn JN, Hofman A, Holt P, Hottenga J, Hudson TJ, Hui J, Imboden M, Ivanov V, Jaddoe VWV, James A, Janson C, Jarvelin MR, Jarvis D, Jones G, Jonsdottir I, Jousilahti P, Kabesch M, Kähönen M, Kantor DB, Karunas AS, Khusnutdinova E, Koppelman GH, Kozyrskyj AL, Kreiner E, Kubo M, Kumar R, Kumar A, Kuokkanen M, Lahousse L, Laitinen T, Laprise C, Lathrop M, Lau S, Lee YA, Lehtimäki T, Letort S, Levin AM, Li G, Liang L, Loehr LR, London SJ, Loth DW, Manichaikul A, Marenholz I, Martinez FJ, Matheson MC, Mathias RA, Matsumoto K, Mbarek H, McArdle WL, Melbye M, Melén E, Meyers D, Michel S, Mohamdi H, Musk AW, Myers RA, Nieuwenhuis MAE, Noguchi E, O’Connor GT, Ogorodova LM, Palmer CD, Palotie A, Park JE, Pennell CE, Pershagen G, Polonikov A, Postma DS, Probst-Hensch N, Puzyrev VP, Raby BA, Raitakari OT, Ramasamy A, Rich SS, Robertson CF, Romieu I, Salam MT, Salomaa V, Schlünssen V, Scott R, Selivanova PA, Sigsgaard T, Simpson A, Siroux V, Smith LJ, Solodilova M, Standl M, Stefansson K, Strachan DP, Stricker BH, Takahashi A, Thompson PJ, Thorleifsson G, Thorsteinsdottir U, Tiesler CMT, Torgerson DG, Tsunoda T, Uitterlinden AG, van der Valk RJP, Vaysse A, Vedantam S, von Berg A, von Mutius E, Vonk JM, Waage J, Wareham NJ, Weiss ST, White WB, Wickman M, Widén E, Willemsen G, Williams LK, Wouters IM, Yang JJ, Zhao JH, Moffatt MF, Ober C, Nicolae DL

Abstract
We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.

PMID: 29273806 [PubMed – in process]

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Distal Duodenogastrostomy or Proximal Jejunogastrostomy in the Management of Ultra-Short Bowel.

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Distal Duodenogastrostomy or Proximal Jejunogastrostomy in the Management of Ultra-Short Bowel.

J Gastrointest Surg. 2017 Dec 22;:

Authors: Hofker TO, Kaijser MA, Nieuwenhuijs VB, Lange JFM, Hofker HS

Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease, vascular disease, volvulus, adhesions, or abdominal trauma may necessitate extensive small-bowel resection resulting in an ultra-short distal duodenal or jejunal stump. If this distal duodenal or short jejunal stump is too short for stoma creation and bowel continuity restoration is hazardous or not possible at all, a distal duodenogastrostomy or proximal jejunogastrostomy in combination with drainage of the stomach is an option to prevent stump leakage. Although successful, this distal duodenogastrostomy has been described only in very few patients and in older records. We reintroduced this technique and describe a recent series of patients that confirms its usefulness in certain conditions. The technique of the distal duodenogastrostomy or proximal jejunogastrostomy with gastric drainage was used for the management of the difficult distal duodenum stump in five critically ill patients undergoing extensive bowel resection. Four patients with small-bowel ischemia and one patient suffering from perforating Crohn’s disease and small-bowel volvulus were treated  successfully. The gastrostomies were subsequently converted to a duodenotransversostomy (in two patients) or the patients underwent small-bowel transplantation (two patients). One patient still has a jejunogastrostomy just after the duodenal-jejunal transition. In all five patients, the distal duodenogastrostomy or proximal jejunogastrostomy in combination with gastric drainage functioned well up to restoration of bowel continuity. In one patient, distal duodenogastrostomy and transabdominal gastric drainage functioned well for 5 years. No anastomotic leakage occurred. This procedure provides a feasible solution for an ultra-short bowel at emergency laparotomy. It enhances the surgical armamentarium and provides treatment options for these patients that were perhaps previously deemed unsalvageable.

PMID: 29273999 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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The added value of a family-centered approach to optimize infants’ social-emotional development: A quasi-experimental study.

The added value of a family-centered approach to optimize infants’ social-emotional development: A quasi-experimental study.
PLoS One. 2017;12(12):e0187750
Authors: Reijneveld SA, Hielkema M, Stewart RE, de Winter AF… Continue reading

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