Tag Archives: PubMed

Perceptual Discrimination of Speaking Style Under Cochlear Implant Simulation.

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Perceptual Discrimination of Speaking Style Under Cochlear Implant Simulation.

Ear Hear. 2018 May 08;:

Authors: Tamati TN, Janse E, Başkent D

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Real-life, adverse listening conditions involve a great deal of speech variability, including variability in speaking style. Depending on the speaking context, talkers may use a more casual, reduced speaking style or a more formal, careful speaking style. Attending to fine-grained acoustic-phonetic details characterizing different speaking styles facilitates the perception of the speaking style used by the talker. These acoustic-phonetic cues are poorly encoded in cochlear implants (CIs), potentially rendering the discrimination of speaking style difficult. As a first step to characterizing CI perception of real-life speech forms, the present study investigated the perception of different speaking styles in normal-hearing (NH) listeners with and without CI simulation.
DESIGN: The discrimination of three speaking styles (conversational reduced speech, speech from retold stories, and carefully read speech) was assessed using a speaking style discrimination task in two experiments. NH listeners classified sentence-length utterances, produced in one of the three styles, as either formal (careful) or informal (conversational). Utterances were presented with unmodified speaking rates in experiment 1 (31 NH, young adult Dutch speakers) and with modified speaking rates set to the average rate across all utterances in experiment 2 (28 NH, young adult Dutch speakers). In both experiments, acoustic noise-vocoder simulations of CIs were used to produce 12-channel (CI-12) and 4-channel (CI-4) vocoder simulation conditions, in addition to a no-simulation condition without CI simulation.
RESULTS: In both experiments 1 and 2, NH listeners were able to reliably discriminate the speaking styles without CI simulation. However, this ability was reduced under CI simulation. In experiment 1, participants showed poor discrimination of speaking styles under CI simulation. Listeners used speaking rate as a cue to make their judgements, even though it was not a reliable cue to speaking style in the study materials. In experiment 2, without differences in speaking rate among speaking styles, listeners showed better discrimination of speaking styles under CI simulation, using additional cues to complete the task.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the present study demonstrate that perceiving differences in three speaking styles under CI simulation is a difficult task because some important cues to speaking style are not fully available in these conditions. While some cues like speaking rate are available, this information alone may not always be a reliable indicator of a particular speaking style. Some other reliable speaking styles cues, such as degraded acoustic-phonetic information and variability in speaking rate within an utterance, may be available but less salient. However, as in experiment 2, listeners’ perception of speaking styles may be modified if they are constrained or trained to use these additional cues, which were more reliable in the context of the present study. Taken together, these results suggest that dealing with speech variability in real-life listening conditions may be a challenge for CI users.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

PMID: 29742545 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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The presence of your absence: A conditioning theory of grief.

The presence of your absence: A conditioning theory of grief.
Behav Res Ther. 2018 Apr 24;106:18-27
Authors: Boddez Y
Abstract
I present a conditioning theory of grief. From conditioning research on a… Continue reading

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PURE and simple? A new perspective on the impact of diet on hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular risk.

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PURE and simple? A new perspective on the impact of diet on hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular risk.
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2018 Jun;29(3):273-274
Authors: Tietge UJF
PMID: 29715244 [PubMed – in p… Continue reading

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Why Does a Universal Anti-Bullying Program Not Help All Children? Explaining Persistent Victimization During an Intervention.

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Why Does a Universal Anti-Bullying Program Not Help All Children? Explaining Persistent Victimization During an Intervention.

Prev Sci. 2018 Apr 30;:

Authors: Kaufman TML, Kretschmer T, Huitsing G, Veenstra R

Abstract
Although anti-bullying interventions are often effective, some children continue to be victimized. To increase knowledge of potential factors that might impede children’s benefiting from an anti-bullying intervention, we examined potential reasons for individual differences in victimization trajectories during a group-based anti-bullying intervention. Data stem from a five-wave survey among 9122 children (7-12 years old; grades 2-5) who participated in the KiVa anti-bullying intervention (n = 6142) or were in control schools (n = 2980 children). Three trajectories were found in the intervention sample, representing children who experienced stable high, decreasing, or stable low/no victimization. A two-trajectory model of high and low trajectories represented the control sample best. Multinomial regressions on the intervention sample showed that children who experienced particularly high levels of peer rejection, internalizing problems, and lower quality parent-child relationships decreased less in victimization; thus these characteristics appeared to contribute to persistent victimization. The results call for tailored strategies in interventions aiming to reduce victimization for more children.

PMID: 29707731 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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The affordance of catchability in running to intercept fly balls.

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The affordance of catchability in running to intercept fly balls.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2018 Apr 30;:
Authors: Postma DBW, Lemmink KAPM, Zaal FTJM
Abstract
How do outfield… Continue reading

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Mindset switching increases the use of ‘want-based’ over ‘should-based’ behaviors.

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Mindset switching increases the use of ‘want-based’ over ‘should-based’ behaviors.
PLoS One. 2018;13(4):e0196269
Authors: Yan J, Zhang NN, Xu DX
Abstract
This study examines the conseq… Continue reading

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Reply to Letter to the Editor by Patrono et al. (LT-18-211), concerning manuscript: Normothermic Machine Perfusion of Donor Livers Without the Need for Human Blood Products (LT-17-589.R2).

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Reply to Letter to the Editor by Patrono et al. (LT-18-211), concerning manuscript: Normothermic Machine Perfusion of Donor Livers Without the Need for Human Blood Products (LT-17-589.R2).
Liver Transpl. 2018 … Continue reading

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Molecular Dynamics of the Association of L-Selectin and FERM Regulated by PIP2.

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Molecular Dynamics of the Association of L-Selectin and FERM Regulated by PIP2.
Biophys J. 2018 Apr 24;114(8):1858-1868
Authors: Sun F, Schroer CFE, Xu L, Yin H, Marrink SJ, Luo SZ
Abstract
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Long-term treatment with metformin in type 2 diabetes and vitamin D levels: A post hoc analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

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Long-term treatment with metformin in type 2 diabetes and vitamin D levels: A post hoc analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 Apr 17;:
Authors: Out M, Top WMC, L… Continue reading

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Long-term outcome of selective neurectomy for refractory periocular synkinesis.

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Long-term outcome of selective neurectomy for refractory periocular synkinesis.

Laryngoscope. 2018 Apr 18;:

Authors: van Veen MM, Dusseldorp JR, Hadlock TA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effect and treatment stability of selective neurectomy for refractory periocular synkinesis.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated with highly selective neurectomy for refractory periocular synkinesis between August 2009 and August 2015. Primary outcome was time to recommencing treatment for periocular synkinesis. Palpebral fissure width was measured preoperatively, postoperatively, and at long-term ( > 2.5 years) follow-up. Mean units of botulinum toxin used pre- and postoperatively were compared.
RESULTS: Of the 12 patients, 10 could be included. Only one was free of treatment for periocular synkinesis at a follow-up of 3.5 years. The other nine patients recommenced treatment with botulinum toxin after a median time of 1.2 (interquartile range 0.6-2.6) years. Palpebral fissure width while smiling was significantly different between the pre- and postoperative (P = 0.008) and preoperative and long-term (P = 0.008) measurements. Postoperatively, previously refractory patients demonstrated good response to botulinum toxin treatments.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that most patients require renewed pharmacological treatment of periocular synkinesis after neurectomy. Although the effect of neurectomy in the treatment of refractory synkinesis does not appear to be sustained, patients usually experience a symptom-free interval and demonstrate larger palpebral fissure width at long-term follow-up compared to preoperative measurements.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV. Laryngoscope, 2018.

PMID: 29668050 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Interpretability in atopic dermatitis: all about the anchor.

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Interpretability in atopic dermatitis: all about the anchor.
Br J Dermatol. 2018 Apr;178(4):832-833
Authors: Oosterhaven JAF
PMID: 29668100 [PubMed – in process]

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A System Biology Perspective on Environment-Host-Microbe Interactions.

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A System Biology Perspective on Environment-Host-Microbe Interactions.
Hum Mol Genet. 2018 Apr 16;:
Authors: Chen L, Garmaeva S, Zherankova A, Fu J, Wijmenga C
Abstract
A vast, comple… Continue reading

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Methotrexate and Thioguanine Rescue Therapy for Conventional Thiopurine Failing Ulcerative Colitis Patients: A Multi-center Database Study on Tolerability and Effectiveness.

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Methotrexate and Thioguanine Rescue Therapy for Conventional Thiopurine Failing Ulcerative Colitis Patients: A Multi-center Database Study on Tolerability and Effectiveness.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 Apr 13;:
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Development and external validation of a prediction rule for an unfavorable course of late-life depression: A multicenter cohort study.

Development and external validation of a prediction rule for an unfavorable course of late-life depression: A multicenter cohort study.

J Affect Disord. 2018 Apr 06;235:105-113

Authors: Maarsingh OR, Heymans MW, Verhaak PF, Penninx BWJH, Comijs HC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Given the poor prognosis of late-life depression, it is crucial to identify those at risk. Our objective was to construct and validate a prediction rule for an unfavourable course of late-life depression.
METHODS: For development and internal validation of the model, we used The Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) data. We included participants with a major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline (n = 270; 60-90 years), assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). For external validation of the model, we used The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) data (n = 197; 50-66 years). The outcome was MDD after 2 years of follow-up, assessed with the CIDI. Candidate predictors concerned sociodemographics, psychopathology, physical symptoms, medication, psychological determinants, and healthcare setting. Model performance was assessed by calculating calibration and discrimination.
RESULTS: 111 subjects (41.1%) had MDD after 2 years of follow-up. Independent predictors of MDD after 2 years were (older) age, (early) onset of depression, severity of depression, anxiety symptoms, comorbid anxiety disorder, fatigue, and loneliness. The final model showed good calibration and reasonable discrimination (AUC of 0.75; 0.70 after external validation). The strongest individual predictor was severity of depression (AUC of 0.69; 0.68 after external validation).
LIMITATIONS: The model was developed and validated in The Netherlands, which could affect the cross-country generalizability.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on rather simple clinical indicators, it is possible to predict the 2-year course of MDD. The prediction rule can be used for monitoring MDD patients and identifying those at risk of an unfavourable outcome.

PMID: 29655070 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Response to Alwardat comments on our systematic review entitled: “Predictors of adherence to exercise interventions during and after cancer treatment: A systematic review”.

Response to Alwardat comments on our systematic review entitled: “Predictors of adherence to exercise interventions during and after cancer treatment: A systematic review”.
Psychooncology. 2018 Apr;27(4):1354
Authors:… Continue reading

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A spatial analysis of dietary patterns in a large representative population in the north of The Netherlands – the Lifelines cohort study.

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A spatial analysis of dietary patterns in a large representative population in the north of The Netherlands – the Lifelines cohort study.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 Dec 07;14(1):166

Authors: Dekker LH, Rijnks RH, Strijker D, Navis GJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Diet is an important modifiable risk factor for chronic diseases. In the search for effective strategies to improve dietary patterns in order to promote healthy ageing, new approaches considering contextual factors in public health medicine are warranted. The aim of this study is to examine the spatial clustering of dietary patterns in a large representative sample of adults.
METHODS: Dietary patterns were defined on the basis of a 111 item Food Frequency Questionnaire among n = 117,570 adults using principal components analysis. We quantified the spatial clustering of dietary pattern scores at the neighborhood level using the Global Moran’s I spatial statistic, taking into consideration individual demographic and (neighborhood) socioeconomic indicators.
RESULTS: Four dietary patterns explaining 27% of the variance in dietary data were extracted in this population and named the “bread and cookies” pattern, the “snack” pattern, the “meat and alcohol” pattern and the “vegetable, fruit and fish” pattern. Significant spatial clustering of high (hot spot) and low (cold spot) dietary pattern scores was found for all four dietary patterns irrespective of age and gender differences. Educational attainment and neighborhood income explained the global clustering to some extent, although clustering at smaller regional scales persisted.
CONCLUSION: The significant region-specific hot and cold spots of the four dietary patterns illustrate the existence of regional “food cultures” and underscore the need for interventions targeted at the sub-national level in order to tackle unhealthy dietary behavior and to stimulate people to make healthy dietary choices.

PMID: 29212502 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype and activity cannot predict outcomes of azathioprine maintenance therapy for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis: A retrospective cohort study.

Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype and activity cannot predict outcomes of azathioprine maintenance therapy for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis: A retrospective cohort study.
PLoS One. 2018;13(4):… Continue reading

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Intra- and Interindividual Variability in the Behavioral, Affective, and Perceptual Effects of Alcohol Consumption in a Social Context.

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Intra- and Interindividual Variability in the Behavioral, Affective, and Perceptual Effects of Alcohol Consumption in a Social Context.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2018 Apr 03;:

Authors: Franzen M, Sadikaj G, Moskowitz DS, Ostafin BD, Aan Het Rot M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We examined the influence of interindividual differences in alcohol use on the intraindividual associations of drinking occurrence with interpersonal behaviors, affect, and perceptions of others during naturally occurring social interactions.
METHODS: For 14 consecutive days, 219 psychology freshmen (55% female; Mage  = 20.7 years, SD = 2.18) recorded their behaviors, affect, and perceptions in social interactions soon after an interpersonal event occurred. Interpersonal behaviors and perceptions were assessed in terms of dominance-submissiveness and agreeableness-quarrelsomeness. Participants also reported the number of alcoholic drinks consumed within 3 hours of each interaction. We considered the intraindividual associations of (i) having a drinking episode and (ii) the number of drinks during an episode with behaviors, affect, and perceptions and examined interindividual differences in drinking frequency and intensity during social interactions as potential moderators of these associations.
RESULTS: Social drinking frequency and intensity moderated the associations between drinking episode and behaviors, affect, and perceptions in social interactions. During a drinking episode, more frequent social drinkers perceived others as more dominant than less frequent social drinkers. During a drinking episode in which more alcohol was consumed than usual, more frequent social drinkers also reported behaving more dominantly and experiencing less pleasant affect.
CONCLUSIONS: As more frequent social drinkers had different interpersonal responses to drinking than less frequent social drinkers, including when they had consumed larger amounts of alcohol than usual, our results suggest a differential susceptibility to the effects of alcohol during naturally occurring social interactions among drinkers with varying drinking frequency.

PMID: 29611874 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Presenteeism in a Dutch hand eczema population-a cross-sectional survey.

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Presenteeism in a Dutch hand eczema population-a cross-sectional survey.

Contact Dermatitis. 2018 Apr 01;:

Authors: Oosterhaven JAF, Flach PA, Bültmann U, Schuttelaar MLA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Presenteeism (attending work despite complaints and ill health, which should prompt rest and absence) has been overlooked in the field of hand eczema.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the 1-year prevalence of presenteeism related to hand eczema in a population of hand eczema patients who visited a tertiary referral centre. Secondary objectives: to identify intrinsic/extrinsic reasons for presenteeism and to evaluate associated factors.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Presenteeism was defined as “going to work despite feeling you should have taken sick leave because of hand eczema”. Respondents answered questions about socio-demographic factors, clinical features, occupational characteristics, and hand eczema related to occupational exposure.
RESULTS: Forty-one per cent (141/346) of patients who had both worked and had hand eczema during the past 12 months reported presenteeism. The most often reported reasons were: “Because I do not want to give in to my impairment/weakness” (46%) and “Because I enjoy my work” (40%). Presenteeism was associated with: mean hand eczema severity; absenteeism because of hand eczema; improvement of hand eczema when away from work; and high-risk occupations.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, presenteeism was common and predominantly observed in patients with more severe hand eczema and occupational exposure. The most frequently reported reasons for presenteeism were of an intrinsic nature.

PMID: 29607512 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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The sentence wrap-up dogma.

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The sentence wrap-up dogma.
Cognition. 2018 Mar 30;176:232-247
Authors: Stowe LA, Kaan E, Sabourin L, Taylor RC
Abstract
Current sentence processing research has focused on early effec… Continue reading

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