Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Review of Known Environmental Protective and Risk Factors Involved.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017 Aug 02;:
Authors: van der Sloot KWJ, Amini M, Peters V, Dijkstra G, Alizadeh BZ
Inflammatory bowel diseases consisting of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to genetic susceptibility and disturbances of the microbiome, environmental exposures forming the exposome play an important role. Starting at birth, the cumulative effect of different environmental exposures combined with a predetermined genetic susceptibility is thought to cause inflammatory bowel disease. All these environmental factors are part of a Western lifestyle, suiting the high incidence rates in Europe and the United States. Whereas receiving breastfeeding, evidence of a Helicobacter pylori infection and vitamin D are important protective factors in Crohn’s disease as well as ulcerative colitis, increased hygiene, experiencing a bacterial gastroenteritis in the past, urban living surroundings, air pollution, the use of antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and oral contraceptives are likely to be the most important risk factors for both diseases. Current cigarette smoking yields a divergent effect by protecting against ulcerative colitis but increasing risk of Crohn’s disease, whereas former smoking increases chances of both diseases. This review gives a clear overview of the current state of knowledge concerning the exposome. Future studies should focus on measuring this exposome yielding the possibility of combining all involved factors to one exposome risk score and our knowledge on genetic susceptibility.
PMID: 28777099 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Evidence-based clinical guidelines for eating disorders: international comparison.
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2017 Aug 01;:
Authors: Hilbert A, Hoek H, Schmidt R
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders.
RECENT FINDINGS: Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The international comparison demonstrated notable commonalities and differences among these current clinical guidelines. Consistency across guidelines was greatest for treatments with a larger evidence base, while those with a lower evidence base had recommendations that varied considerably.
SUMMARY: Evidence-based clinical guidelines represent an important step toward the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments into clinical practice. Despite advances in clinical research on eating disorders, a growing body of literature demonstrates that individuals with eating disorders often do not receive an evidence-based treatment for their disorder. Regarding the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments, current guidelines do endorse the main empirically validated treatment approaches with considerable agreement, but additional recommendations are largely inconsistent. An increased evidence base is critical in offering clinically useful and reliable guidance for the treatment of eating disorders. Because developing and updating clinical guidelines is time-consuming and complex, an international coordination of guideline development, for example, across the European Union, would be desirable.
PMID: 28777107 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Revealing Oft-cited but Unpublished Papers of Colin Pittendrigh and Coworkers.
J Biol Rhythms. 2017 Jul 01;:748730417716685
Authors: Tackenberg MC, Johnson CH, Page TL, Daan S
Among the scientific resources that Colin Pittendrigh passed on to his colleagues after his death in 1996 were two unpublished papers. These manuscripts, developed first in the mid-1960s and continually updated and refined through the late 1970s, centered on the development and experimental exploration of a model of circadian entrainment combining aspects of the well-known parametric (continuous) and nonparametric (discrete) models of entrainment. These texts reveal the experimental work surrounding Pittendrigh’s determination of the limits of entrainment and the explanation of the bistability phenomenon. These manuscripts are being made publicly available in their final format (February 1978) as supplementary material to this introduction.
PMID: 28766460 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Structural Biology of the Immune Checkpoint Receptor PD-1 and Its Ligands PD-L1/PD-L2.
Structure. 2017 Aug 01;25(8):1163-1174
Authors: Zak KM, Grudnik P, Magiera K, Dömling A, Dubin G, Holak TA
Cancer cells can avoid and suppress immune responses through activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint proteins, such as PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. Blocking the activities of these proteins with monoclonal antibodies, and thus restoring T cell function, has delivered breakthrough therapies against cancer. In this review, we describe the latest work on structural characterization of the checkpoint proteins, their interactions with cognate ligands and with therapeutic antibodies. Structures of the extracellular portions of these proteins reveal that they all have a similar modular structure, composed of small domains similar in topology to the domains found in antibodies. Structural basis for blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction by small molecules is illustrated with the compound BMS-202 that binds to and induces dimerization of PD-L1.
PMID: 28768162 [PubMed – in process]
Posted in Structure
Tagged PubMed, TOP25
Interim FDG-PET in lymphoma, a questionable practice in hematology.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017 Jul 31;:
Authors: Adams HJA, Kwee TC
PMID: 28761975 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]