In the Netherlands, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was implemented in a 3+1-dose schedule in the national immunization program for infants born after April 1, 2006. To assess the vaccine’s effectiveness, we compared disease incidence before and after vaccine implementation (June 2004 June 2006 and June 2006 June 2008, respectively). We serotyped 2,552 invasive pneumococcal isolates from throughout the Netherlands, covering 25% of the country’s population. Clinical characteristics were extracted from hospital records. After June 2006, vaccine-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) decreased 90% (95% confidence interval [CI] 68%-97%) in children age eligible for PCV-7; simultaneously, however, non vaccine-serotype IPD increased by 71% (not significant), resulting in a 44% total net IPD reduction (95% CI 7%-66%). IPD rates did not change for other age groups. In the Netherlands, PCV-7 offered high protection against vaccine-serotype IPD in vaccinated children, but increases of non vaccine-serotype IPD reduced net vaccine benefits
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