Category Archives: J Psychiatr Res

Development and validation of a clinical prediction tool to estimate the individual risk of depressive relapse or recurrence in individuals with recurrent depression.

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Development and validation of a clinical prediction tool to estimate the individual risk of depressive relapse or recurrence in individuals with recurrent depression.

J Psychiatr Res. 2018 Jun 08;104:1-7

Authors: Klein NS, Holtman GA, Bockting CLH, Heymans MW, Burger H

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Many studies examined predictors of depressive relapse/recurrence but no simple tool based on well-established risk factors is available that estimates the risk within an individual. We developed and validated such a prediction tool in remitted recurrently depressed individuals.
METHODS: The tool was developed using data (n = 235) from a pragmatic randomised controlled trial in remitted recurrently depressed participants and externally validated using data (n = 209) from a similar randomised controlled trial of remitted recurrently depressed participants using maintenance antidepressants. Cox regression was used with time to relapse/recurrence within 2 years as outcome and well-established risk factors as predictors. Performance measures and absolute risk scores were calculated, a practically applicable risk score was created, and the tool was externally validated.
RESULTS: The 2-year cumulative proportion relapse/recurrence was 46.2% in the validation dataset. The tool included number of previous depressive episodes, residual depressive symptoms, severity of the last depressive episode, and treatment. The C-statistic and calibration slope were 0.56 and 0.81 respectively. The tool stratified participants into relapse/recurrence risk classes of 37%, 55%, and 72%. The C-statistic and calibration slope in the external validation were 0.59 and 0.56 respectively, and Kaplan Meier curves showed that the tool could differentiate between risk classes.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that developed a simple prediction tool based on well-established risk factors of depressive relapse/recurrence, estimating the individual risk. Since the overall performance of the model was poor, more studies are needed to enhance the performance before recommending implementation into clinical practice.

PMID: 29908389 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: A combined structural and functional MRI study.

DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: A combined structural and functional MRI study.

J Psychiatr Res. 2014 Dec 11;

Authors: Opmeer EM, van Tol M, Kortekaas R, van der Wee NJ, Woudstra S, van Buchem MA, Penninx BW, Veltman DJ, Aleman A

Abstract
The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects.

PMID: 25533973 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Association between mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma.

Association between mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma.

J Psychiatr Res. 2014 Sep 16;

Authors: Alonso J, de Jonge P, Lim CC, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Bruffaerts R, Caldas-de-Almeida JM, Liu Z, O’Neill S, Stein DJ, Viana MC, Al-Hamzawi AO, Angermeyer MC, Borges G, Ciutan M, de Girolamo G, Fiestas F, Haro JM, Hu C, Kessler RC, Lépine JP, Levinson D, Nakamura Y, Posada-Villa J, Wojtyniak BJ, Scott KM

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Associations between asthma and anxiety and mood disorders are well established, but little is known about their temporal sequence. We examined associations between a wide range of DSM-IV mental disorders with adult onset of asthma and whether observed associations remain after mental comorbidity adjustments.
METHODS: During face-to-face household surveys in community-dwelling adults (n = 52,095) of 19 countries, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Asthma was assessed by self-report of physician’s diagnosis together with age of onset. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma, without and with comorbidity adjustment.
RESULTS: 1860 adult onset (21 years+) asthma cases were identified, representing a total of 2,096,486 person-years of follow up. After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders several mental disorders were associated with subsequent adult asthma onset: bipolar (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.3-2.5), panic (OR = 1.4; 95%CI 1.0-2.0), generalized anxiety (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.7), specific phobia (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.6); post-traumatic stress (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-1.9); binge eating (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.9) and alcohol abuse (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-2.0). Mental comorbidity linearly increased the association with adult asthma. The association with subsequent asthma was stronger for mental disorders with an early onset (before age 21).
CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of temporally prior mental disorders are significantly associated with subsequent onset of asthma in adulthood. The extent to which asthma can be avoided or improved among those with early mental disorders deserves study.

PMID: 25263276 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Deficits in metacognitive capacity distinguish patients with schizophrenia from those with prolonged medical adversity.

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Deficits in metacognitive capacity distinguish patients with schizophrenia from those with prolonged medical adversity.

J Psychiatr Res. 2014 Apr 19;

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Physical activity and onset of depression in adolescents: a prospective study in the general population cohort TRAILS.

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Physical activity and onset of depression in adolescents: a prospective study in the general population cohort TRAILS.
J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Oct;47(10):1304-8
Authors: Stavrakakis N, Roest AM, Verhul… Continue reading

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Two subdomains of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders: established and confirmed in two large cohorts.

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Two subdomains of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders: established and confirmed in two large cohorts.

J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Jun;47(6):718-25

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Amygdala activation and its functional connectivity during perception of emotional faces in social phobia and panic disorder.

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Amygdala activation and its functional connectivity during perception of emotional faces in social phobia and panic disorder.
J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Apr 30;
Authors: Demenescu LR, Kortekaas R, Cremers HR, Renken… Continue reading

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Dimensions of the inventory of depressive symptomatology as predictors of the course of depressive and anxiety disorders.

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Dimensions of the inventory of depressive symptomatology as predictors of the course of depressive and anxiety disorders.

J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Dec;46(12):1655-61

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The state effect of depressive and anxiety disorders on big five personality traits.

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The state effect of depressive and anxiety disorders on big five personality traits.

J Psychiatr Res. 2012 May;46(5):644-50

Authors: Karsten J, Penninx…

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