Category Archives: J Clin Epidemiol

Rasch analysis reveals comparative analyses of ADL/IADL summary scores from different residential settings is inappropriate.

Rasch analysis reveals comparative analyses of ADL/IADL summary scores from different residential settings is inappropriate.
J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Nov 17;
Authors: Lutomski JE, Krabbe PF, den Elzen WP, Olde-Rikkert … Continue reading

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Moderate concordance was found between case-only and parallel group designs in systematic comparison.

Moderate concordance was found between case-only and parallel group designs in systematic comparison.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Oct 8;

Authors: Pouwels KB, Mulder B, Hak E

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Quality of reporting of confounding remained suboptimal after the STROBE guideline.

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Quality of reporting of confounding remained suboptimal after the STROBE guideline.
J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Aug 28;
Authors: Pouwels KB, Widyakusuma NN, Groenwold RH, Hak E
Abstract
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Design of stepwise screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes based on costs and cases detected.

Design of stepwise screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes based on costs and cases detected.
J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 May 27;
Authors: de Graaf G, Postmus D, Bakker SJ, Buskens E
Abstract
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Parametric time-to-onset models were developed to improve causality assessment of adverse drug reactions from antidiabetic drugs.

Parametric time-to-onset models were developed to improve causality assessment of adverse drug reactions from antidiabetic drugs.
J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Mar 9;
Authors: Scholl JH, van de Ven PM, van Puijenbroek EP
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A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia.

A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Mar 24;

Authors: van der Spek K, Gerritsen DL, Smalbrugge M, Nelissen-Vrancken MH, Wetzels RB, Smeets CH, Zuidema SU, Koopmans RT

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop an index derived from the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) items that is suited for clinical studies evaluating appropriateness of psychotropic drug use (PDU) for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with dementia in nursing homes and to test its reliability and validity.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: An expert panel reviewed the MAI items to develop items for appropriateness of PDU; a second, independent, expert panel determined content validity of the items. An interrater reliability study was conducted (N = 54), and a summated index score, based on weighted item scores, was developed to enhance the use in clinical studies. Construct validity was explored using a representative sample of 560 medical records.
RESULTS: Five existing MAI items were used, the MAI item “indication” was adjusted, a new item “evaluation” was added, and scoring rules were based on guideline recommendations, to create the Appropriate Psychotropic drugs use In Dementia (APID) index. The second expert panel concluded that all items contributed to the construct “appropriateness.” All items and the summated index score had moderate to almost perfect interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient for agreement, 0.577-1). The summated index score showed promising construct validity, for example, no multicollinearity issues were found.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the APID index is reliable and valid for measuring appropriateness of PDU for NPS in dementia in nursing homes in clinical studies.

PMID: 25910910 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Birth cohort appeared to confound effect estimates of guideline changes on statin utilization.

Birth cohort appeared to confound effect estimates of guideline changes on statin utilization.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2014 Nov 13;

Authors: Bijlsma MJ, Janssen F, Lub R, Bos JH, De Vries FM, Vansteelandt S, Hak E

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate how birth cohorts can confound population-based intervention effect estimates.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Interrupted time series design was applied to study the prevalence of statin use in Dutch diabetes patients over the period 1998-2011. Effects of guideline changes on the outcome were estimated using a Poisson regression model with and without the birth cohort dimension modeled through random intercepts.
RESULTS: Both models estimated a stronger increase in prevalence of statin use after influential studies were published in 2003 for patients aged below 50 and above 70 years. The model that controlled for birth cohort also estimated an effect for patients aged 50-70 years from 2003 onward. The magnitude of the intervention effect for patients aged above 70 years when we controlled for birth cohort was reduced from 0.078 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.065, 0.091] to 0.027 (95% CI: 0.013, 0.041). Similarly, for patients aged below 50 years, the estimated guideline effect was reduced from 0.070 (95% CI: 0.048, 0.092) to 0.055 (95% CI: 0.035, 0.075).
CONCLUSION: In this case study, the birth cohort dimension appeared to confound population-level effect estimates of guideline changes on prevalence of statin use in patients with diabetes.

PMID: 25499797 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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After adjusting for bias in meta-analysis seasonal influenza vaccine remains effective in community-dwelling elderly.

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After adjusting for bias in meta-analysis seasonal influenza vaccine remains effective in community-dwelling elderly.
J Clin Epidemiol. 2014 Jul;67(7):734-44
Authors: Darvishian M, Gefenaite G, Turne… Continue reading

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G-computation might be used to control for confounding when estimating the population-level impact of interventions through outcome distribution curves.

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G-computation might be used to control for confounding when estimating the population-level impact of interventions through outcome distribution curves.

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Strengths and weaknesses of a stepped wedge cluster randomized design: its application in a colorectal cancer follow-up study.

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Strengths and weaknesses of a stepped wedge cluster randomized design: its application in a colorectal cancer follow-up study.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2014…

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Missing data in a multi-item instrument were best handled by multiple imputation at the item score level.

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Missing data in a multi-item instrument were best handled by multiple imputation at the item score level.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2014 Mar;67(3):335-42

Authors: …

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Nationwide individual record linkage study showed poor agreement of causes of death and hospital diagnoses at individual level but reasonable agreement at population level.

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Nationwide individual record linkage study showed poor agreement of causes of death and hospital diagnoses at individual level but reasonable agreement at population level.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2014 Feb;67(2):160-8

Authors: Klijs B, Nusselder WJ, Mackenbach JP

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate to what extent underlying and multiple causes of death represent end-of-life morbidity in individuals and at population level.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Cause of death and national hospital data were individually linked for all deaths at the age of 50-84 years, in 2005 in the Netherlands (n = 86,987). The individual agreement of diseases registered as a diagnosis of discharge in the last 2 years of life and underlying and multiple causes of death recorded was assessed. Cause-of-death ranking was compared with ranking of hospital diagnoses.
RESULTS: The percentage of persons with a hospital diagnosis registered as the underlying cause of death was <30% for most diseases, except for cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis, acute myocardial infarction (40-60%), and cancers (70-90%). Low Cohen’s kappa values confirmed poor individual agreement between hospital diagnoses and underlying and secondary causes of death recorded. At population level, however, frequency rankings of underlying and multiple causes of death agreed reasonably well with frequency ranking of hospital diagnoses (Spearman ρ of 0.58-0.60 and 0.61-0.63).
CONCLUSION: Underlying and multiple causes of death poorly represent diseases present at the end of life in individuals but show reasonably well which diseases are most common at population level.

PMID: 24183606 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Causal inference algorithms can be useful in life course epidemiology.

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Causal inference algorithms can be useful in life course epidemiology.
J Clin Epidemiol. 2014 Feb;67(2):190-8
Authors: la Bastide-van Gemert S, Stolk RP, van den Heuvel ER, Fidler V
Abstract
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The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire scored best in the assessment of health-related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire scored best in the assessment of health-related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2013 Oct;66(10):1166-74

Authors: Struik FM, Kerstjens HA, Bladder G, Sprooten R, Zijnen M, Asin J, van der Molen T, Wijkstra PJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure during an admission requiring ventilatory support. The aim was to assess and compare the reliability and validity of the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), Maugeri Respiratory Failure-28 (MRF-28) Questionnaire, and Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI) Questionnaire in patients with very severe COPD.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: One hundred eighty hospitalized patients filled out the CCQ, CRQ, MRF-28, SRI, Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MRC). Reliability was examined by assessing distribution of total scores, floor and ceiling effects, and internal consistency (using Cronbach α coefficient). Construct validity between questionnaires and also the other measurements were tested with Spearman ρ.
RESULTS: All four questionnaires were feasible in this setting and had reasonable characteristics for distribution of total scores, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, and construct validity. On balance, the SRI scored best. Additionally, the SRI had a remarkable high explained variance by HADS, GARS, and MRC (73%).
CONCLUSION: The SRI performed slightly better than the CCQ, CRQ, and MRF-28, which renders it the preferred questionnaire for scoring HRQL in patients with very severe COPD.

PMID: 23835311 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Inclusion of the birth cohort dimension improved description and explanation of trends in statin use.

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Inclusion of the birth cohort dimension improved description and explanation of trends in statin use.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2012 Oct;65(10):1052-60

Authors: …

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Multicriteria benefit-risk assessment using network meta-analysis.

Multicriteria benefit-risk assessment using network meta-analysis.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2011 Dec 23;

Authors: van Valkenhoef G, Tervonen T, Zhao J, de Brock B, Hillege HL, Postmus D

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