Category Archives: Nature

Is plasticity caused by single genes?

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Is plasticity caused by single genes?
Nature. 2018 Mar 28;555(7698):E19-E20
Authors: van Gestel J, Weissing FJ
PMID: 29595768 [PubMed – in process]

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Neuroscience: Listening in on yourself.

Neuroscience: Listening in on yourself.

Nature. 2016 Apr 6;532(7597):32-33

Authors: Draaisma D

PMID: 27078554 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Oliver Sacks (1933-2015).

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Oliver Sacks (1933-2015).
Nature. 2015 Sep 2;
Authors: Draaisma D
PMID: 26331535 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized.

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Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized.
Nature. 2015 Aug 13;524(7564):168-9
Authors: Jungmann KP
PMID: 26268187 [PubMed – in process]

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Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

Nature. 2015 Aug 12;

Authors: Merckx VS, Hendriks KP, Beentjes KK, Mennes CB, Becking LE, Peijnenburg KT, Afendy A, Arumugam N, de Boer H, Biun A, Buang MM, Chen PP, Chung AY, Dow R, Feijen FA, Feijen H, Soest CF, Geml J, Geurts R, Gravendeel B, Hovenkamp P, Imbun P, Ipor I, Janssens SB, Jocqué M, Kappes H, Khoo E, Koomen P, Lens F, Majapun RJ, Morgado LN, Neupane S, Nieser N, Pereira JT, Rahman H, Sabran S, Sawang A, Schwallier RM, Shim PS, Smit H, Sol N, Spait M, Stech M, Stokvis F, Sugau JB, Suleiman M, Sumail S, Thomas DC, van Tol J, Tuh FY, Yahya BE, Nais J, Repin R, Lakim M, Schilthuizen M

Abstract
Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and ‘evolutionary rescue’ in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

PMID: 26266979 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

Nature. 2015 Aug 12;

Authors: Merckx VS, Hendriks KP, Beentjes KK, Mennes CB, Becking LE, Peijnenburg KT, Afendy A, Arumugam N, de Boer H, Biun A, Buang MM, Chen PP, Chung AY, Dow R, Feijen FA, Feijen H, Soest CF, Geml J, Geurts R, Gravendeel B, Hovenkamp P, Imbun P, Ipor I, Janssens SB, Jocqué M, Kappes H, Khoo E, Koomen P, Lens F, Majapun RJ, Morgado LN, Neupane S, Nieser N, Pereira JT, Rahman H, Sabran S, Sawang A, Schwallier RM, Shim PS, Smit H, Sol N, Spait M, Stech M, Stokvis F, Sugau JB, Suleiman M, Sumail S, Thomas DC, van Tol J, Tuh FY, Yahya BE, Nais J, Repin R, Lakim M, Schilthuizen M

Abstract
Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and ‘evolutionary rescue’ in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

PMID: 26258300 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Molecular biology: It takes two to untangle.

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Molecular biology: It takes two to untangle.
Nature. 2015 Aug 5;
Authors: Kampinga HH
PMID: 26245378 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations.

Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations.

Nature. 2015 Jul 1;

Authors: Joshi PK, Esko T, Mattsson H, Eklund N, Gandin I, Nutile T, Jackson AU, Schurmann C, Smith AV, Zhang W, Okada Y, Stančáková A, Faul JD, Zhao W, Bartz TM, Concas MP, Franceschini N, Enroth S, Vitart V, Trompet S, Guo X, Chasman DI, O’Connel JR, Corre T, Nongmaithem SS, Chen Y, Mangino M, Ruggiero D, Traglia M, Farmaki AE, Kacprowski T, Bjonnes A, van der Spek A, Wu Y, Giri AK, Yanek LR, Wang L, Hofer E, Rietveld CA, McLeod O, Cornelis MC, Pattaro C, Verweij N, Baumbach C, Abdellaoui A, Warren HR, Vuckovic D, Mei H, Bouchard C, Perry JR, Cappellani S, Mirza SS, Benton MC, Broeckel U, Medland SE, Lind PA, Malerba G, Drong A, Yengo L, Bielak LF, Zhi D, van der Most PJ, Shriner D, Mägi R, Hemani G, Karaderi T, Wang Z, Liu T, Demuth I, Zhao JH, Meng W, Lataniotis L, van der Laan SW, Bradfield JP, Wood AR, Bonnefond A, Ahluwalia TS, Hall LM, Salvi E, Yazar S, Carstensen L, de Haan HG, Abney M, Afzal U, Allison MA, Amin N, Asselbergs FW, Bakker SJ, Barr RG, Baumeister SE, Benjamin DJ, Bergmann S, Boerwinkle E, Bottinger EP, Campbell A, Chakravarti A, Chan Y, Chanock SJ, Chen C, Chen YI, Collins FS, Connell J, Correa A, Cupples LA, Smith GD, Davies G, Dörr M, Ehret G, Ellis SB, Feenstra B, Feitosa MF, Ford I, Fox CS, Frayling TM, Friedrich N, Geller F, Scotland G, Gillham-Nasenya I, Gottesman O, Graff M, Grodstein F, Gu C, Haley C, Hammond CJ, Harris SE, Harris TB, Hastie ND, Heard-Costa NL, Heikkilä K, Hocking LJ, Homuth G, Hottenga JJ, Huang J, Huffman JE, Hysi PG, Ikram MA, Ingelsson E, Joensuu A, Johansson Å, Jousilahti P, Jukema JW, Kähönen M, Kamatani Y, Kanoni S, Kerr SM, Khan NM, Koellinger P, Koistinen HA, Kooner MK, Kubo M, Kuusisto J, Lahti J, Launer LJ, Lea RA, Lehne B, Lehtimäki T, Liewald DC, Lind L, Loh M, Lokki ML, London SJ, Loomis SJ, Loukola A, Lu Y, Lumley T, Lundqvist A, Männistö S, Marques-Vidal P, Masciullo C, Matchan A, Mathias RA, Matsuda K, Meigs JB, Meisinger C, Meitinger T, Menni C, Mentch FD, Mihailov E, Milani L, Montasser ME, Montgomery GW, Morrison A, Myers RH, Nadukuru R, Navarro P, Nelis M, Nieminen MS, Nolte IM, O’Connor GT, Ogunniyi A, Padmanabhan S, Palmas WR, Pankow JS, Patarcic I, Pavani F, Peyser PA, Pietilainen K, Poulter N, Prokopenko I, Ralhan S, Redmond P, Rich SS, Rissanen H, Robino A, Rose LM, Rose R, Sala C, Salako B, Salomaa V, Sarin AP, Saxena R, Schmidt H, Scott LJ, Scott WR, Sennblad B, Seshadri S, Sever P, Shrestha S, Smith BH, Smith JA, Soranzo N, Sotoodehnia N, Southam L, Stanton AV, Stathopoulou MG, Strauch K, Strawbridge RJ, Suderman MJ, Tandon N, Tang ST, Taylor KD, Tayo BO, Töglhofer AM, Tomaszewski M, Tšernikova N, Tuomilehto J, Uitterlinden AG, Vaidya D, van Hylckama Vlieg A, van Setten J, Vasankari T, Vedantam S, Vlachopoulou E, Vozzi D, Vuoksimaa E, Waldenberger M, Ware EB, Wentworth-Shields W, Whitfield JB, Wild S, Willemsen G, Yajnik CS, Yao J, Zaza G, Zhu X, BioBank Japan Project, Salem RM, Melbye M, Bisgaard H, Samani NJ, Cusi D, Mackey DA, Cooper RS, Froguel P, Pasterkamp G, Grant SF, Hakonarson H, Ferrucci L, Scott RA, Morris AD, Palmer CN, Dedoussis G, Deloukas P, Bertram L, Lindenberger U, Berndt SI, Lindgren CM, Timpson NJ, Tönjes A, Munroe PB, Sørensen TI, Rotimi CN, Arnett DK, Oldehinkel AJ, Kardia SL, Balkau B, Gambaro G, Morris AP, Eriksson JG, Wright MJ, Martin NG, Hunt SC, Starr JM, Deary IJ, Griffiths LR, Tiemeier H, Pirastu N, Kaprio J, Wareham NJ, Pérusse L, Wilson JG, Girotto G, Caulfield MJ, Raitakari O, Boomsma DI, Gieger C, van der Harst P, Hicks AA, Kraft P, Sinisalo J, Knekt P, Johannesson M, Magnusson PK, Hamsten A, Schmidt R, Borecki IB, Vartiainen E, Becker DM, Bharadwaj D, Mohlke KL, Boehnke M, van Duijn CM, Sanghera DK, Teumer A, Zeggini E, Metspalu A, Gasparini P, Ulivi S, Ober C, Toniolo D, Rudan I, Porteous DJ, Ciullo M, Spector TD, Hayward C, Dupuis J, Loos RJ, Wright AF, Chandak GR, Vollenweider P, Shuldiner AR, Ridker PM, Rotter JI, Sattar N, Gyllensten U, North KE, Pirastu M, Psaty BM, Weir DR, Laakso M, Gudnason V, Takahashi A, Chambers JC, Kooner JS, Strachan DP, Campbell H, Hirschhorn JN, Perola M, Polašek O, Wilson JF

Abstract
Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months’ less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.

PMID: 26131930 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy.

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Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy.

Nature. 2015 Jun 3;

Authors: Khaminets A, Heinrich T, Mari M, Grumati P, Huebner AK, Akutsu M, Liebmann L, Stolz A, Nietzsche S, Koch N, Mauthe M, Katona I, Qualmann B, Weis J, Reggiori F, Kurth I, Hübner CA, Dikic I

Abstract
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular endomembrane system, enabling protein and lipid synthesis, ion homeostasis, quality control of newly synthesized proteins and organelle communication. Constant ER turnover and modulation is needed to meet different cellular requirements and autophagy has an important role in this process. However, its underlying regulatory mechanisms remain unexplained. Here we show that members of the FAM134 reticulon protein family are ER-resident receptors that bind to autophagy modifiers LC3 and GABARAP, and facilitate ER degradation by autophagy (‘ER-phagy’). Downregulation of FAM134B protein in human cells causes an expansion of the ER, while FAM134B overexpression results in ER fragmentation and lysosomal degradation. Mutant FAM134B proteins that cause sensory neuropathy in humans are unable to act as ER-phagy receptors. Consistently, disruption of Fam134b in mice causes expansion of the ER, inhibits ER turnover, sensitizes cells to stress-induced apoptotic cell death and leads to degeneration of sensory neurons. Therefore, selective ER-phagy via FAM134 proteins is indispensable for mammalian cell homeostasis and controls ER morphology and turnover in mice and humans.

PMID: 26040720 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Corrigendum: Endocrinization of FGF1 produces a neomorphic and potent insulin sensitizer.

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Corrigendum: Endocrinization of FGF1 produces a neomorphic and potent insulin sensitizer.
Nature. 2015 Mar 4;
Authors: Suh JM, Jonker JW, Ahmadian M, Goetz R, Lackey D, Osborn O, Huang Z, Liu W, Yosh… Continue reading

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Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.

Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.

Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):197-206

Authors: Locke AE, Kahali B, Berndt SI, Justice AE, Pers TH, Day FR, Powell C, Vedantam S, Buchkovich ML, Yang J, Croteau-Chonka DC, Esko T, Fall T, Ferreira T, Gustafsson S, Kutalik Z, Luan J, Mägi R, Randall JC, Winkler TW, Wood AR, Workalemahu T, Faul JD, Smith JA, Hua Zhao J, Zhao W, Chen J, Fehrmann R, Hedman ÅK, Karjalainen J, Schmidt EM, Absher D, Amin N, Anderson D, Beekman M, Bolton JL, Bragg-Gresham JL, Buyske S, Demirkan A, Deng G, Ehret GB, Feenstra B, Feitosa MF, Fischer K, Goel A, Gong J, Jackson AU, Kanoni S, Kleber ME, Kristiansson K, Lim U, Lotay V, Mangino M, Mateo Leach I, Medina-Gomez C, Medland SE, Nalls MA, Palmer CD, Pasko D, Pechlivanis S, Peters MJ, Prokopenko I, Shungin D, Stančáková A, Strawbridge RJ, Ju Sung Y, Tanaka T, Teumer A, Trompet S, van der Laan SW, van Setten J, Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Wang Z, Yengo L, Zhang W, Isaacs A, Albrecht E, Ärnlöv J, Arscott GM, Attwood AP, Bandinelli S, Barrett A, Bas IN, Bellis C, Bennett AJ, Berne C, Blagieva R, Blüher M, Böhringer S, Bonnycastle LL, Böttcher Y, Boyd HA, Bruinenberg M, Caspersen IH, Ida Chen YD, Clarke R, Warwick Daw E, de Craen AJ, Delgado G, Dimitriou M, Doney AS, Eklund N, Estrada K, Eury E, Folkersen L, Fraser RM, Garcia ME, Geller F, Giedraitis V, Gigante B, Go AS, Golay A, Goodall AH, Gordon SD, Gorski M, Grabe HJ, Grallert H, Grammer TB, Gräßler J, Grönberg H, Groves CJ, Gusto G, Haessler J, Hall P, Haller T, Hallmans G, Hartman CA, Hassinen M, Hayward C, Heard-Costa NL, Helmer Q, Hengstenberg C, Holmen O, Hottenga JJ, James AL, Jeff JM, Johansson Å, Jolley J, Juliusdottir T, Kinnunen L, Koenig W, Koskenvuo M, Kratzer W, Laitinen J, Lamina C, Leander K, Lee NR, Lichtner P, Lind L, Lindström J, Sin Lo K, Lobbens S, Lorbeer R, Lu Y, Mach F, Magnusson PK, Mahajan A, McArdle WL, McLachlan S, Menni C, Merger S, Mihailov E, Milani L, Moayyeri A, Monda KL, Morken MA, Mulas A, Müller G, Müller-Nurasyid M, Musk AW, Nagaraja R, Nöthen MM, Nolte IM, Pilz S, Rayner NW, Renstrom F, Rettig R, Ried JS, Ripke S, Robertson NR, Rose LM, Sanna S, Scharnagl H, Scholtens S, Schumacher FR, Scott WR, Seufferlein T, Shi J, Vernon Smith A, Smolonska J, Stanton AV, Steinthorsdottir V, Stirrups K, Stringham HM, Sundström J, Swertz MA, Swift AJ, Syvänen AC, Tan ST, Tayo BO, Thorand B, Thorleifsson G, Tyrer JP, Uh HW, Vandenput L, Verhulst FC, Vermeulen SH, Verweij N, Vonk JM, Waite LL, Warren HR, Waterworth D, Weedon MN, Wilkens LR, Willenborg C, Wilsgaard T, Wojczynski MK, Wong A, Wright AF, Zhang Q, LifeLines Cohort Study, Brennan EP, Choi M, Dastani Z, Drong AW, Eriksson P, Franco-Cereceda A, Gådin JR, Gharavi AG, Goddard ME, Handsaker RE, Huang J, Karpe F, Kathiresan S, Keildson S, Kiryluk K, Kubo M, Lee JY, Liang L, Lifton RP, Ma B, McCarroll SA, McKnight AJ, Min JL, Moffatt MF, Montgomery GW, Murabito JM, Nicholson G, Nyholt DR, Okada Y, Perry JR, Dorajoo R, Reinmaa E, Salem RM, Sandholm N, Scott RA, Stolk L, Takahashi A, Tanaka T, Van’t Hooft FM, Vinkhuyzen AA, Westra HJ, Zheng W, Zondervan KT, ADIPOGen Consortium, AGEN-BMI Working Group, CARDIOGRAMplusC4D Consortium, CKDGen Consortium, GLGC, ICBP, MAGIC Investigators, MuTHER Consortium, MIGen Consortium, PAGE Consortium, ReproGen Consortium, GENIE Consortium, International Endogene Consortium, Heath AC, Arveiler D, Bakker SJ, Beilby J, Bergman RN, Blangero J, Bovet P, Campbell H, Caulfield MJ, Cesana G, Chakravarti A, Chasman DI, Chines PS, Collins FS, Crawford DC, Adrienne Cupples L, Cusi D, Danesh J, de Faire U, den Ruijter HM, Dominiczak AF, Erbel R, Erdmann J, Eriksson JG, Farrall M, Felix SB, Ferrannini E, Ferrières J, Ford I, Forouhi NG, Forrester T, Franco OH, Gansevoort RT, Gejman PV, Gieger C, Gottesman O, Gudnason V, Gyllensten U, Hall AS, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Hicks AA, Hindorff LA, Hingorani AD, Hofman A, Homuth G, Kees Hovingh G, Humphries SE, Hunt SC, Hyppönen E, Illig T, Jacobs KB, Jarvelin MR, Jöckel KH, Johansen B, Jousilahti P, Wouter Jukema J, Jula AM, Kaprio J, Kastelein JJ, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Kiemeney LA, Knekt P, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Kovacs P, Kraja AT, Kumari M, Kuusisto J, Lakka TA, Langenberg C, Le Marchand L, Lehtimäki T, Lyssenko V, Männistö S, Marette A, Matise TC, McKenzie CA, McKnight B, Moll FL, Morris AD, Morris AP, Murray JC, Nelis M, Ohlsson C, Oldehinkel AJ, Ong KK, Madden PA, Pasterkamp G, Peden JF, Peters A, Postma DS, Pramstaller PP, Price JF, Qi L, Raitakari OT, Rankinen T, Rao DC, Rice TK, Ridker PM, Rioux JD, Ritchie MD, Rudan I, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Saramies J, Sarzynski MA, Schunkert H, Schwarz PE, Sever P, Shuldiner AR, Sinisalo J, Stolk RP, Strauch K, Tönjes A, Trégouët DA, Tremblay A, Tremoli E, Virtamo J, Vohl MC, Völker U, Waeber G, Willemsen G, Witteman JC, Zillikens MC, Adair LS, Amouyel P, Asselbergs FW, Assimes TL, Bochud M, Boehm BO, Boerwinkle E, Bornstein SR, Bottinger EP, Bouchard C, Cauchi S, Chambers JC, Chanock SJ, Cooper RS, de Bakker PI, Dedoussis G, Ferrucci L, Franks PW, Froguel P, Groop LC, Haiman CA, Hamsten A, Hui J, Hunter DJ, Hveem K, Kaplan RC, Kivimaki M, Kuh D, Laakso M, Liu Y, Martin NG, März W, Melbye M, Metspalu A, Moebus S, Munroe PB, Njølstad I, Oostra BA, Palmer CN, Pedersen NL, Perola M, Pérusse L, Peters U, Power C, Quertermous T, Rauramaa R, Rivadeneira F, Saaristo TE, Saleheen D, Sattar N, Schadt EE, Schlessinger D, Eline Slagboom P, Snieder H, Spector TD, Thorsteinsdottir U, Stumvoll M, Tuomilehto J, Uitterlinden AG, Uusitupa M, van der Harst P, Walker M, Wallaschofski H, Wareham NJ, Watkins H, Weir DR, Wichmann HE, Wilson JF, Zanen P, Borecki IB, Deloukas P, Fox CS, Heid IM, O’Connell JR, Strachan DP, Stefansson K, van Duijn CM, Abecasis GR, Franke L, Frayling TM, McCarthy MI, Visscher PM, Scherag A, Willer CJ, Boehnke M, Mohlke KL, Lindgren CM, Beckmann JS, Barroso I, North KE, Ingelsson E, Hirschhorn JN, Loos RJ, Speliotes EK

Abstract
Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

PMID: 25673413 [PubMed – in process]

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New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):187-96

Authors: Shungin D, Winkler TW, Croteau-Chonka DC, Ferreira T, Locke AE, Mägi R, Strawbridge RJ, Pers TH, Fischer K, Justice AE, Workalemahu T, Wu JM, Buchkovich ML, Heard-Costa NL, Roman TS, Drong AW, Song C, Gustafsson S, Day FR, Esko T, Fall T, Kutalik Z, Luan J, Randall JC, Scherag A, Vedantam S, Wood AR, Chen J, Fehrmann R, Karjalainen J, Kahali B, Liu CT, Schmidt EM, Absher D, Amin N, Anderson D, Beekman M, Bragg-Gresham JL, Buyske S, Demirkan A, Ehret GB, Feitosa MF, Goel A, Jackson AU, Johnson T, Kleber ME, Kristiansson K, Mangino M, Mateo Leach I, Medina-Gomez C, Palmer CD, Pasko D, Pechlivanis S, Peters MJ, Prokopenko I, Stančáková A, Ju Sung Y, Tanaka T, Teumer A, Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Yengo L, Zhang W, Albrecht E, Ärnlöv J, Arscott GM, Bandinelli S, Barrett A, Bellis C, Bennett AJ, Berne C, Blüher M, Böhringer S, Bonnet F, Böttcher Y, Bruinenberg M, Carba DB, Caspersen IH, Clarke R, Daw EW, Deelen J, Deelman E, Delgado G, Doney AS, Eklund N, Erdos MR, Estrada K, Eury E, Friedrich N, Garcia ME, Giedraitis V, Gigante B, Go AS, Golay A, Grallert H, Grammer TB, Gräßler J, Grewal J, Groves CJ, Haller T, Hallmans G, Hartman CA, Hassinen M, Hayward C, Heikkilä K, Herzig KH, Helmer Q, Hillege HL, Holmen O, Hunt SC, Isaacs A, Ittermann T, James AL, Johansson I, Juliusdottir T, Kalafati IP, Kinnunen L, Koenig W, Kooner IK, Kratzer W, Lamina C, Leander K, Lee NR, Lichtner P, Lind L, Lindström J, Lobbens S, Lorentzon M, Mach F, Magnusson PK, Mahajan A, McArdle WL, Menni C, Merger S, Mihailov E, Milani L, Mills R, Moayyeri A, Monda KL, Mooijaart SP, Mühleisen TW, Mulas A, Müller G, Müller-Nurasyid M, Nagaraja R, Nalls MA, Narisu N, Glorioso N, Nolte IM, Olden M, Rayner NW, Renstrom F, Ried JS, Robertson NR, Rose LM, Sanna S, Scharnagl H, Scholtens S, Sennblad B, Seufferlein T, Sitlani CM, Vernon Smith A, Stirrups K, Stringham HM, Sundström J, Swertz MA, Swift AJ, Syvänen AC, Tayo BO, Thorand B, Thorleifsson G, Tomaschitz A, Troffa C, van Oort FV, Verweij N, Vonk JM, Waite LL, Wennauer R, Wilsgaard T, Wojczynski MK, Wong A, Zhang Q, Hua Zhao J, Brennan EP, Choi M, Eriksson P, Folkersen L, Franco-Cereceda A, Gharavi AG, Hedman ÅK, Hivert MF, Huang J, Kanoni S, Karpe F, Keildson S, Kiryluk K, Liang L, Lifton RP, Ma B, McKnight AJ, McPherson R, Metspalu A, Min JL, Moffatt MF, Montgomery GW, Murabito JM, Nicholson G, Nyholt DR, Olsson C, Perry JR, Reinmaa E, Salem RM, Sandholm N, Schadt EE, Scott RA, Stolk L, Vallejo EE, Westra HJ, Zondervan KT, ADIPOGen Consortium, CARDIOGRAMplusC4D Consortium, CKDGen Consortium, GEFOS Consortium, GENIE Consortium, GLGC, ICBP, International Endogene Consortium, LifeLines Cohort Study, MAGIC Investigators, MuTHER Consortium, PAGE Consortium, ReproGen Consortium, Amouyel P, Arveiler D, Bakker SJ, Beilby J, Bergman RN, Blangero J, Brown MJ, Burnier M, Campbell H, Chakravarti A, Chines PS, Claudi-Boehm S, Collins FS, Crawford DC, Danesh J, de Faire U, de Geus EJ, Dörr M, Erbel R, Eriksson JG, Farrall M, Ferrannini E, Ferrières J, Forouhi NG, Forrester T, Franco OH, Gansevoort RT, Gieger C, Gudnason V, Haiman CA, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Heliövaara M, Hicks AA, Hingorani AD, Hoffmann W, Hofman A, Homuth G, Humphries SE, Hyppönen E, Illig T, Jarvelin MR, Johansen B, Jousilahti P, Jula AM, Kaprio J, Kee F, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Kovacs P, Kraja AT, Kumari M, Kuulasmaa K, Kuusisto J, Lakka TA, Langenberg C, Le Marchand L, Lehtimäki T, Lyssenko V, Männistö S, Marette A, Matise TC, McKenzie CA, McKnight B, Musk AW, Möhlenkamp S, Morris AD, Nelis M, Ohlsson C, Oldehinkel AJ, Ong KK, Palmer LJ, Penninx BW, Peters A, Pramstaller PP, Raitakari OT, Rankinen T, Rao DC, Rice TK, Ridker PM, Ritchie MD, Rudan I, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Saramies J, Sarzynski MA, Schwarz PE, Shuldiner AR, Staessen JA, Steinthorsdottir V, Stolk RP, Strauch K, Tönjes A, Tremblay A, Tremoli E, Vohl MC, Völker U, Vollenweider P, Wilson JF, Witteman JC, Adair LS, Bochud M, Boehm BO, Bornstein SR, Bouchard C, Cauchi S, Caulfield MJ, Chambers JC, Chasman DI, Cooper RS, Dedoussis G, Ferrucci L, Froguel P, Grabe HJ, Hamsten A, Hui J, Hveem K, Jöckel KH, Kivimaki M, Kuh D, Laakso M, Liu Y, März W, Munroe PB, Njølstad I, Oostra BA, Palmer CN, Pedersen NL, Perola M, Pérusse L, Peters U, Power C, Quertermous T, Rauramaa R, Rivadeneira F, Saaristo TE, Saleheen D, Sinisalo J, Slagboom PE, Snieder H, Spector TD, Thorsteinsdottir U, Stumvoll M, Tuomilehto J, Uitterlinden AG, Uusitupa M, van der Harst P, Veronesi G, Walker M, Wareham NJ, Watkins H, Wichmann HE, Abecasis GR, Assimes TL, Berndt SI, Boehnke M, Borecki IB, Deloukas P, Franke L, Frayling TM, Groop LC, Hunter DJ, Kaplan RC, O’Connell JR, Qi L, Schlessinger D, Strachan DP, Stefansson K, van Duijn CM, Willer CJ, Visscher PM, Yang J, Hirschhorn JN, Zillikens MC, McCarthy MI, Speliotes EK, North KE, Fox CS, Barroso I, Franks PW, Ingelsson E, Heid IM, Loos RJ, Cupples LA, Morris AP, Lindgren CM, Mohlke KL

Abstract
Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

PMID: 25673412 [PubMed – in process]

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Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

Nature. 2015 Jan 21;

Authors: Hibar DP, Stein JL, Renteria ME, Arias-Vasquez A, Desrivières S, Jahanshad N, Toro R, Wittfeld K, Abramovic L, Andersson M, Aribisala BS, Armstrong NJ, Bernard M, Bohlken MM, Boks MP, Bralten J, Brown AA, Mallar Chakravarty M, Chen Q, Ching CR, Cuellar-Partida G, den Braber A, Giddaluru S, Goldman AL, Grimm O, Guadalupe T, Hass J, Woldehawariat G, Holmes AJ, Hoogman M, Janowitz D, Jia T, Kim S, Klein M, Kraemer B, Lee PH, Olde Loohuis LM, Luciano M, Macare C, Mather KA, Mattheisen M, Milaneschi Y, Nho K, Papmeyer M, Ramasamy A, Risacher SL, Roiz-Santiañez R, Rose EJ, Salami A, Sämann PG, Schmaal L, Schork AJ, Shin J, Strike LT, Teumer A, van Donkelaar MM, van Eijk KR, Walters RK, Westlye LT, Whelan CD, Winkler AM, Zwiers MP, Alhusaini S, Athanasiu L, Ehrlich S, Hakobjan MM, Hartberg CB, Haukvik UK, Heister AJ, Hoehn D, Kasperaviciute D, Liewald DC, Lopez LM, Makkinje RR, Matarin M, Naber MA, Reese McKay D, Needham M, Nugent AC, Pütz B, Royle NA, Shen L, Sprooten E, Trabzuni D, van der Marel SS, van Hulzen KJ, Walton E, Wolf C, Almasy L, Ames D, Arepalli S, Assareh AA, Bastin ME, Brodaty H, Bulayeva KB, Carless MA, Cichon S, Corvin A, Curran JE, Czisch M, de Zubicaray GI, Dillman A, Duggirala R, Dyer TD, Erk S, Fedko IO, Ferrucci L, Foroud TM, Fox PT, Fukunaga M, Raphael Gibbs J, Göring HH, Green RC, Guelfi S, Hansell NK, Hartman CA, Hegenscheid K, Heinz A, Hernandez DG, Heslenfeld DJ, Hoekstra PJ, Holsboer F, Homuth G, Hottenga JJ, Ikeda M, Jack CR, Jenkinson M, Johnson R, Kanai R, Keil M, Kent JW, Kochunov P, Kwok JB, Lawrie SM, Liu X, Longo DL, McMahon KL, Meisenzahl E, Melle I, Mohnke S, Montgomery GW, Mostert JC, Mühleisen TW, Nalls MA, Nichols TE, Nilsson LG, Nöthen MM, Ohi K, Olvera RL, Perez-Iglesias R, Bruce Pike G, Potkin SG, Reinvang I, Reppermund S, Rietschel M, Romanczuk-Seiferth N, Rosen GD, Rujescu D, Schnell K, Schofield PR, Smith C, Steen VM, Sussmann JE, Thalamuthu A, Toga AW, Traynor BJ, Troncoso J, Turner JA, Valdés Hernández MC, van ‘t Ent D, van der Brug M, van der Wee NJ, van Tol MJ, Veltman DJ, Wassink TH, Westman E, Zielke RH, Zonderman AB, Ashbrook DG, Hager R, Lu L, McMahon FJ, Morris DW, Williams RW, Brunner HG, Buckner RL, Buitelaar JK, Cahn W, Calhoun VD, Cavalleri GL, Crespo-Facorro B, Dale AM, Davies GE, Delanty N, Depondt C, Djurovic S, Drevets WC, Espeseth T, Gollub RL, Ho BC, Hoffmann W, Hosten N, Kahn RS, Le Hellard S, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Müller-Myhsok B, Nauck M, Nyberg L, Pandolfo M, Penninx BW, Roffman JL, Sisodiya SM, Smoller JW, van Bokhoven H, van Haren NE, Völzke H, Walter H, Weiner MW, Wen W, White T, Agartz I, Andreassen OA, Blangero J, Boomsma DI, Brouwer RM, Cannon DM, Cookson MR, de Geus EJ, Deary IJ, Donohoe G, Fernández G, Fisher SE, Francks C, Glahn DC, Grabe HJ, Gruber O, Hardy J, Hashimoto R, Hulshoff Pol HE, Jönsson EG, Kloszewska I, Lovestone S, Mattay VS, Mecocci P, McDonald C, McIntosh AM, Ophoff RA, Paus T, Pausova Z, Ryten M, Sachdev PS, Saykin AJ, Simmons A, Singleton A, Soininen H, Wardlaw JM, Weale ME, Weinberger DR, Adams HH, Launer LJ, Seiler S, Schmidt R, Chauhan G, Satizabal CL, Becker JT, Yanek L, van der Lee SJ, Ebling M, Fischl B, Longstreth WT, Greve D, Schmidt H, Nyquist P, Vinke LN, van Duijn CM, Xue L, Mazoyer B, Bis JC, Gudnason V, Seshadri S, Arfan Ikram M, The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, The CHARGE Consortium, EPIGEN, IMAGEN, SYS, Martin NG, Wright MJ, Schumann G, Franke B, Thompson PM, Medland SE

Abstract
The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

PMID: 25607358 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Artificial chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an epitaxial oxide.

Artificial chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an epitaxial oxide.

Nature. 2014 Nov 19;515(7527):379-383

Authors: Farokhipoor S, Magén C, Venkatesan S, Iñiguez J, Daumont CJ, Rubi D, Snoeck E, Mostovoy M, de Graaf C, Müller A, Döblinger M, Scheu C, Noheda B

Abstract
Progress in nanotechnology requires new approaches to materials synthesis that make it possible to control material functionality down to the smallest scales. An objective of materials research is to achieve enhanced control over the physical properties of materials such as ferromagnets, ferroelectrics and superconductors. In this context, complex oxides and inorganic perovskites are attractive because slight adjustments of their atomic structures can produce large physical responses and result in multiple functionalities. In addition, these materials often contain ferroelastic domains. The intrinsic symmetry breaking that takes place at the domain walls can induce properties absent from the domains themselves, such as magnetic or ferroelectric order and other functionalities, as well as coupling between them. Moreover, large domain wall densities create intense strain gradients, which can also affect the material’s properties. Here we show that, owing to large local stresses, domain walls can promote the formation of unusual phases. In this sense, the domain walls can function as nanoscale chemical reactors. We synthesize a two-dimensional ferromagnetic phase at the domain walls of the orthorhombic perovskite terbium manganite (TbMnO3), which was grown in thin layers under epitaxial strain on strontium titanate (SrTiO3) substrates. This phase is yet to be created by standard chemical routes. The density of the two-dimensional sheets can be tuned by changing the film thickness or the substrate lattice parameter (that is, the epitaxial strain), and the distance between sheets can be made as small as 5 nanometres in ultrathin films, such that the new phase at domain walls represents up to 25 per cent of the film volume. The general concept of using domain walls of epitaxial oxides to promote the formation of unusual phases may be applicable to other materials systems, thus giving access to new classes of nanoscale materials for applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

PMID: 25409828 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Spatially resolved magnetic field structure in the disk of a T Tauri star.

Spatially resolved magnetic field structure in the disk of a T Tauri star.

Nature. 2014 Oct 22;

Authors: Stephens IW, Looney LW, Kwon W, Fernández-López M, Hughes AM, Mundy LG, Crutcher RM, Li ZY, Rao R

Abstract
Magnetic fields in accretion disks play a dominant part during the star formation process but have hitherto been observationally poorly constrained. Field strengths have been inferred on T Tauri stars and possibly in the innermost part of their accretion disks, but the strength and morphology of the field in the bulk of a disk have not been observed. Spatially unresolved measurements of polarized emission (arising from elongated dust grains aligned perpendicularly to the field) imply average fields aligned with the disks. Theoretically, the fields are expected to be largely toroidal, poloidal or a mixture of the two, which imply different mechanisms for transporting angular momentum in the disks of actively accreting young stars such as HL Tau (ref. 11). Here we report resolved measurements of the polarized 1.25-millimetre continuum emission from the disk of HL Tau. The magnetic field on a scale of 80 astronomical units is coincident with the major axis (about 210 astronomical units long) of the disk. From this we conclude that the magnetic field inside the disk at this scale cannot be dominated by a vertical component, though a purely toroidal field also does not fit the data well. The unexpected morphology suggests that the role of the magnetic field in the accretion of a T Tauri star is more complex than our current theoretical understanding.

PMID: 25337883 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Hemani et al. reply.

Hemani et al. reply.
Nature. 2014 Oct 1;514(7520):E5-E6
Authors: Hemani G, Shakhbazov K, Westra HJ, Esko T, Henders AK, McRae AF, Yang J, Gibson G, Martin NG, Metspalu A, Franke L, Montgomery GW, Visscher PM, Powell … Continue reading

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Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

Nature. 2014 Jul 23;

Authors: Perry JR, Day F, Elks CE, Sulem P, Thompson DJ, Ferreira T, He C, Chasman DI, Esko T, Thorleifsson G, Albrecht E, Ang WQ, Corre T, Cousminer DL, Feenstra B, Franceschini N, Ganna A, Johnson AD, Kjellqvist S, Lunetta KL, McMahon G, Nolte IM, Paternoster L, Porcu E, Smith AV, Stolk L, Teumer A, Tšernikova N, Tikkanen E, Ulivi S, Wagner EK, Amin N, Bierut LJ, Byrne EM, Hottenga JJ, Koller DL, Mangino M, Pers TH, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Hua Zhao J, Andrulis IL, Anton-Culver H, Atsma F, Bandinelli S, Beckmann MW, Benitez J, Blomqvist C, Bojesen SE, Bolla MK, Bonanni B, Brauch H, Brenner H, Buring JE, Chang-Claude J, Chanock S, Chen J, Chenevix-Trench G, Collée JM, Couch FJ, Couper D, Coviello AD, Cox A, Czene K, D’adamo AP, Davey Smith G, De Vivo I, Demerath EW, Dennis J, Devilee P, Dieffenbach AK, Dunning AM, Eiriksdottir G, Eriksson JG, Fasching PA, Ferrucci L, Flesch-Janys D, Flyger H, Foroud T, Franke L, Garcia ME, García-Closas M, Geller F, de Geus EE, Giles GG, Gudbjartsson DF, Gudnason V, Guénel P, Guo S, Hall P, Hamann U, Haring R, Hartman CA, Heath AC, Hofman A, Hooning MJ, Hopper JL, Hu FB, Hunter DJ, Karasik D, Kiel DP, Knight JA, Kosma VM, Kutalik Z, Lai S, Lambrechts D, Lindblom A, Mägi R, Magnusson PK, Mannermaa A, Martin NG, Masson G, McArdle PF, McArdle WL, Melbye M, Michailidou K, Mihailov E, Milani L, Milne RL, Nevanlinna H, Neven P, Nohr EA, Oldehinkel AJ, Oostra BA, Palotie A, Peacock M, Pedersen NL, Peterlongo P, Peto J, Pharoah PD, Postma DS, Pouta A, Pylkäs K, Radice P, Ring S, Rivadeneira F, Robino A, Rose LM, Rudolph A, Salomaa V, Sanna S, Schlessinger D, Schmidt MK, Southey MC, Sovio U, Stampfer MJ, Stöckl D, Storniolo AM, Timpson NJ, Tyrer J, Visser JA, Vollenweider P, Völzke H, Waeber G, Waldenberger M, Wallaschofski H, Wang Q, Willemsen G, Winqvist R, Wolffenbuttel BH, Wright MJ, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study, The GENICA Network, kConFab, The LifeLines Cohort Study, The InterAct Consortium, Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium, Boomsma DI, Econs MJ, Khaw KT, Loos RJ, McCarthy MI, Montgomery GW, Rice JP, Streeten EA, Thorsteinsdottir U, van Duijn CM, Alizadeh BZ, Bergmann S, Boerwinkle E, Boyd HA, Crisponi L, Gasparini P, Gieger C, Harris TB, Ingelsson E, Järvelin MR, Kraft P, Lawlor D, Metspalu A, Pennell CE, Ridker PM, Snieder H, Sørensen TI, Spector TD, Strachan DP, Uitterlinden AG, Wareham NJ, Widen E, Zygmunt M, Murray A, Easton DF, Stefansson K, Murabito JM, Ong KK

Abstract
Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition.

PMID: 25231870 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Jet acceleration of the fast molecular outflows in the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063.

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Endocrinization of FGF1 produces a neomorphic and potent insulin sensitizer.

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The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems.

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Nature. 2014 Jun 5;510(7503):109-14
Authors: Moroz LL, Kocot KM, Citarella MR, Dosung S, Norekian TP, Povolotskaya IS, Grigorenko… Continue reading

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