Category Archives: Atherosclerosis

The inverse association of HDL-cholesterol with future risk of hypertension is not modified by its antioxidant constituent, paraoxonase-1: The PREVEND prospective cohort study.






The inverse association of HDL-cholesterol with future risk of hypertension is not modified by its antioxidant constituent, paraoxonase-1: The PREVEND prospective cohort study.

Atherosclerosis. 2017 Jun 21;263:219-226

Authors: Kunutsor SK, Kieneker LM, Bakker SJL, James RW, Dullaart RPF

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), an established risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), has been shown to be inversely and independently associated with incident hypertension. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is an HDL-bound esterase enzyme associated with CVD, but its relationship with incident hypertension has not been previously investigated. We aimed at evaluating the prospective association between PON-1 and hypertension risk.
METHODS: PON-1 arylesterase activity was measured in serum at baseline in 3988 participants without pre-existing hypertension in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) prospective population-based study. During a median follow-up of 10.7 years, 1206 participants developed hypertension.
RESULTS: In age- and sex-adjusted analysis, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for incident hypertension per 1 standard deviation increase in PON-1 was 1.01 (0.96-1.07; p = 0.656), which remained non-significant after adjustment for several established hypertension risk factors and other potential confounders (0.99, 0.93 to 1.05; p = 0.764). The association was also non-existent on further adjustment for HDL-C (1.00 (0.94-1.06; p = 0.936)) and did not importantly vary across several clinical subgroups. In analyses in the same set of participants, HDL-C was continuously inversely and independently associated with hypertension risk; the association persisted after further adjustment for PON-1 activity and was not modified by PON-1 activity.
CONCLUSIONS: In this Caucasian cohort of men and women, HDL-C, but not its anti-oxidant constituent – PON-1, is inversely, continuously and independently associated with future risk of hypertension. The association is independent of and not modified by PON-1.

PMID: 28667918 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Serum paraoxonase-1 activity and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: The PREVEND study and meta-analysis of prospective population studies.






Serum paraoxonase-1 activity and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: The PREVEND study and meta-analysis of prospective population studies.

Atherosclerosis. 2015 Dec 19;245:143-154

Authors: Kunutsor SK, Bakker SJ, James RW, Dullaart RP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) has been suggested to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, however, aspects of the association, such as shape and independence from conventional risk factors are still uncertain. We aimed to assess the association of PON-1 with CVD risk and determine its potential utility for CVD risk prediction.
METHODS: PON-1 was measured as its arylesterase activity at baseline in the PREVEND prospective study of 6902 participants.
RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 730 CVD events were recorded. Serum PON-1 was weakly correlated with several cardiovascular risk markers including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.18; P < 0.001) and was approximately log-linearly associated with CVD risk. In analyses adjusted for conventional risk factors, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for CVD per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in loge PON-1 was 0.92 (0.85-0.99; P = 0.020), which remained persistent after additional adjustment for potential confounders 0.93 (0.86-0.99; P = 0.037). The association was attenuated on further adjustment for HDL-C 0.95 (0.88-1.02; P = 0.153). In a meta-analysis of 6 population-based prospective studies involving 15 064 participants and 2958 incident CVD outcomes, the pooled multivariable adjusted (including HDL-C) relative risk (95% CI) for CVD was 0.95 (0.90-1.02; P = 0.138) per 1 SD increase in PON-1 values. Adding PON-1 to a CVD risk prediction model containing conventional risk factors did not improve the C-index or net reclassification.
CONCLUSIONS: There is an approximately log-linear inverse association between PON-1 activity and CVD risk, which is partly dependent on HDL-C levels. In addition, serum PON-1 activity provides no significant improvement in CVD risk assessment beyond conventional CVD risk factors.

PMID: 26724525 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Inverse linear associations between liver aminotransferases and incident cardiovascular disease risk: The PREVEND study.






Inverse linear associations between liver aminotransferases and incident cardiovascular disease risk: The PREVEND study.

Atherosclerosis. 2015 Sep 8;243(1):138-147

Authors: Kunutsor SK, Bakker SJ, Kootstra-Ros JE, Blokzijl H, Gansevoort RT, Dullaart RP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) have been linked with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but their relationships with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are uncertain. We aimed to assess the associations of ALT and AST with CVD risk and determine their potential utility for CVD risk prediction.
METHODS: ALT and AST measurements were made at baseline in the PREVEND prospective cohort involving 6899 participants aged 28-75 years without pre-existing CVD.
RESULTS: During 10.5 years of follow-up, 729 CVD events were recorded. Serum aminotransferases were strongly correlated with each other and each weakly correlated with several cardiovascular risk markers. ALT and AST were each approximately log-linearly associated with CVD risk. In analyses adjusted for conventional risk factors, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for CVD per 1 standard deviation increase in loge ALT and loge AST were 0.87 (0.79-0.94; P = 0.001) and 0.91 (0.84-0.98; P = 0.017) respectively. The associations remained consistent after additional adjustment for several potential confounders including alcohol consumption, fasting glucose, and C-reactive protein, with corresponding hazard ratios of 0.88 (0.80-0.96; P = 0.003) and 0.92 (0.84-0.99; P = 0.029). The inverse associations persisted within normal ranges of the aminotransferases. Adding ALT or AST to a CVD risk prediction model containing established risk factors did not improve the C-index or net reclassification.
CONCLUSIONS: Available data suggest the liver aminotransferases are each inversely, independently, and approximately log-linearly associated with CVD risk. Nonetheless, they provide no significant improvement in CVD risk assessment beyond conventional CVD risk factors.

PMID: 26386210 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification as an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerotic disease in a single ethnic cohort of African American women.






Mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification as an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerotic disease in a single ethnic cohort of African American women.

Atherosclerosis. 2015 Jul 8;242(1):218-221

Authors: Newallo D, Meinel FG, Schoepf UJ, Baumann S, De Cecco CN, Leddy RJ, Vliegenthart R, Möllmann H, Hamm CW, Morris PB, Renker M

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating data on predominantly Caucasian women suggests an association between breast arterial calcification (BAC) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to comprehensively examine the correlation between mammographic BAC and CAD endpoints detected by cardiac computed tomography (CCT) in African American (AA) women.
METHODS: Consecutive AA women who underwent digital screening mammography and CCT were identified. In blinded fashion, mammographic and CCT studies were reviewed. Patient-related pertinent covariates were assessed.
RESULTS: Two-hundred-four AA women (median age, 52.5 years) were included. BAC was present in 42 women (20.6%). BAC was significantly associated with coronary artery calcium score >100 (odds ratio [OR], 7.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.75-21.29; P < 0.001), atherosclerotic luminal narrowing (OR, 9.99; CI, 3.65-27.32; P < 0.001), and stenosis ≥50% (OR, 5.48; CI, 1.97-15.23; P = 0.001) by CCT.
CONCLUSION: In AA women, BAC is associated with increased probability of coronary calcification, atherosclerosis, and CAD on CCT.

PMID: 26210762 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Is the association of serum sodium with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes explained by copeptin or NT-proBNP? (ZODIAC-46).






Is the association of serum sodium with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes explained by copeptin or NT-proBNP? (ZODIAC-46).

Atherosclerosis. 2015 Jul 8;242(1):179-185

Authors: Riphagen IJ, Logtenberg SJ, Groenier KH, van Hateren KJ, Landman GW, Struck J, Navis G, Kootstra-Ros JE, Kema IP, Bilo HJ, Kleefstra N, Bakker SJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hyponatremia has been associated with an increased mortality risk in the general population. Diabetes is a condition predisposing for elevated levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and heart failure, both common causes of hyponatremia. These factors, however, are also associated with an increased mortality risk. We aimed to investigate whether serum sodium is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes and whether these associations could be explained by copeptin, a surrogate for AVP, or NT-proBNP, a marker for heart failure.
METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the observational ZODIAC study were included. Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the association of serum sodium with mortality.
RESULTS: We included 1068 patients (age 67 ± 12 years, 45% male, serum sodium 142 ± 3 mmol/L). After 15 years of follow-up, 519 patients (49%) died, with 225 cardiovascular deaths (21%). In univariable analyses, serum sodium, copeptin, and NT-proBNP were all significantly associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These associations remained significant after combination of these markers in a multivariable model. Serum sodium and NT-proBNP remained significantly associated with mortality after further adjustment for potential confounders, whereas copeptin lost significance after adjustment for SCr and ACR.
CONCLUSION: Low serum sodium was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes. Moreover, these associations were not explained by copeptin and NT-proBNP. Whether low serum sodium itself leads to poor outcome or is a marker for (unidentified) co-morbidity severity or use of specific medications remains to be elucidated.

PMID: 26201002 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Vascular effects of oxysterols and oxyphytosterols in apoE -/- mice.






Vascular effects of oxysterols and oxyphytosterols in apoE -/- mice.

Atherosclerosis. 2015 Feb 26;240(1):73-79

Authors: Weingärtner O, Husche C, Schött HF, Speer T, Böhm M, Miller CM, McCarthy F, Plat J, Lütjohann D, Laufs U

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate vascular effects of oxysterols and oxyphytosterols on reactive oxygen species (ROS), endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial function and atherogenesis.
METHODS: Male apoE-/-mice were treated with cholesterol, sitosterol, 7-ß-OH-cholesterol, 7-ß-OH-sitosterol, or cyclodextrin by daily intraperitoneal application. The respective concentrations in the plasma and in the arterial wall were determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization or mass spectrometry. ROS production was assessed by electron-spin resonance spectroscopy in the aorta, endothelial function of aortic rings and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinus was quantitated after 4 weeks.
RESULTS: Compared to vehicle, there was no difference in plasma cholesterol levels and arterial wall concentrations after i.p. application of cholesterol. 7-ß-OH-cholesterol concentrations were increased in the plasma (33.7 ± 31.5 vs. 574.57.2 ± 244.92 ng/ml) but not in the arterial wall (60.1 ± 60.1 vs. 59.3 ± 18.2 ng/mg). Sitosterol (3.39 ± 0.96 vs. 8.16 ± 4.11 mg/dL; 0.08 ± 0.04 vs. 0.16 ± 0.07 μg/mg, respectively) and 7-ß-OH-sitosterol concentrations (405.1 ± 151.8 vs. 7497 ± 3223 ng/ml; 0.24 ± 0.13 vs. 16.82 ± 11.58 ng/mg, respectively) increased in the plasma and in the aorta. The i.p-application of the non-oxidized cholesterol or sitosterol did not induce an increase of plasma oxysterols or oxyphytosterols concentrations. Oxidative stress in the aorta was increased in 7-ß-OH-sitosterol treated mice, but not in mice treated with cholesterol, sitosterol, or 7-ß-OH-cholesterol. Moreover, cholesterol, sitosterol, 7-ß-OH-cholesterol, and 7-ß-OH-sitosterol did not affect endothelial-dependent vasodilation, or early atherosclerosis.
CONCLUSION: Increased oxyphytosterol concentrations in plasma and arterial wall were associated with increased ROS production in aortic tissue, but did not affect endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial function, or early atherosclerosis.

PMID: 25765595 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Vascular risk factors, vascular disease, lipids and lipid targets in patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia: A European cross-sectional study.






Vascular risk factors, vascular disease, lipids and lipid targets in patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia: A European cross-sectional study.

Atherosclerosis. 2015 Feb 27;240(1):90-97

Authors: Koopal C, Retterstøl K, Sjouke B, Hovingh GK, Ros E, de Graaf J, Dullaart RP, Bertolini S, Visseren FL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD), also known as type III hyperlipoproteinemia, is a genetic dyslipidemia characterized by elevated very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicron remnant particles that confers increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vascular risk factors, CVD, lipid values, treatment and lipid targets in patients with FD across Europe.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in 305 patients with FD from seven academic hospitals in four European countries. Information was collected from clinical records.
RESULTS: Patients mean (± standard deviation) age was 60.9 ± 14.4 years, 201 (66%) were male, 69 (23%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) and 87 (29%) had a prior history of CVD. Mean body mass index was 28.5 ± 5.0 kg/m(2). Lipid-lowering medication was used by 227 (74%) patients (27% usual dose (theoretical low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction ≤40%) and 46% intensive dose (theoretical LDL-C reduction >40%)). Non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels below treatment target (<3.3 mmol/L) were present in 123 (40%) patients and 163 patients (53%) had LDL-C levels below target (<2.5 mmol/L). No significant determinants were found for having non-HDL-C levels below target, while a prior history of CVD (OR 1.90, 95%CI 1.05-3.47) and presence of DM (OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.08-3.70) were associated with having LDL-C levels below treatment target.
CONCLUSION: The majority of FD patients had non-HDL-C levels above the treatment target of 3.3 mmol/L. Intensive dose lipid-lowering medication was used by only half of the patients, leaving them at increased cardiovascular risk.

PMID: 25768710 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Long-term outcome in men and women after CABG; results from the IMAGINE trial.






Long-term outcome in men and women after CABG; results from the IMAGINE trial.

Atherosclerosis. 2015 Feb 24;

Authors: den Ruijter HM, Haitjema S, van der Meer MG, van der Harst P, Rouleau JL, Asselbergs FW, van Gilst WH, IMAGINE Investigators

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine sex differences in long-term outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
METHODS: The international randomized controlled IMAGINE study included 2553 consecutive patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of >40% who underwent isolated CABG. Median follow-up was 32 months (IQR 17-42 months). The composite endpoint comprised of death, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular event, angina, revascularization and congestive heart failure. Cox regression analysis was used to examine sex differences in outcome post-CABG.
RESULTS: Of the 2553 patients, 2229 were men and 324 (13%) were women. Women were older and more often reported diabetes and hypertension. Smoking and impaired renal function were more prevalent in men. Women experienced a higher event rate during follow-up (composite endpoint 18% vs 12%; P = 0.007). Cox regression showed an increased risk of the composite endpoint in women after adjustment for age (HR 1.48 (95% CI: 1.11-1.97)) which was non-significant after additional adjustment for other confounders (HR 1.26 (95% CI: 0.92-1.72)).
CONCLUSION: Women have a worse long-term outcome after CABG than men in univariate analysis. However, after adjusting for potential confounders female sex became a non-significant predictor for prognosis, possibly due to the small sample size of women. Definite answers regarding sex-differences in long-term outcome after CABG should come from future pooling of studies comprising a larger number of women.

PMID: 25731671 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Plasma IL-5 concentration and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis.






Plasma IL-5 concentration and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis. 2014 Dec 23;239(1):125-130

Authors: Silveira A, McLeod O, Strawbridge RJ, Gertow K,…

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Circulating gamma glutamyltransferase and prediction of cardiovascular disease.






Circulating gamma glutamyltransferase and prediction of cardiovascular disease.

Atherosclerosis. 2014 Dec 23;238(2):356-364

Authors: Kunutsor SK, Bakker SJ, Kootstra-Ros JE, Gansevoort RT, Dullaart RP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The value of measuring levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. We aimed to determine whether adding information on GGT values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of CVD risk.
METHODS: Circulating GGT levels were measured at baseline in the PREVEND prospective cohort study. We included 6969 participants without a prevalent history of CVD. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI]) and measures of risk discrimination for CVD outcomes (e.g., C-index) and reclassification (i.e., net reclassification improvement) of participants across predicted 10-year risk categories of low (<5%), intermediate (5%to <7.5%), and high (≥7.5%) risk were assessed.
RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10.5 years, 735 incident CVD events were recorded. Loge GGT was linearly associated with CVD risk. In analyses adjusted for conventional plus several potential cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for CVD per 1 standard deviation increase in loge GGT was 1.24 (1.12-1.37; P < 0.001), which was attenuated somewhat after further adjustment for C-reactive protein 1.18 (1.06-1.30; P = 0.002). Addition of information on GGT to a CVD risk prediction model containing conventional risk factors was associated with a C-index change of 0.0003 (-0.0015 to 0.0022; P = 0.73) and a net reclassification improvement of 1.19% (-0.11-2.49%; P = 0.07) for the categories of predicted 10-year CVD risk.
CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, adding GGT to conventional CVD risk factors is unlikely to improve prediction of first-ever cardiovascular events.

PMID: 25555268 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Plasma autoantibodies against apolipoprotein B-100 peptide 210 in subclinical atherosclerosis.






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Plasma autoantibodies against apolipoprotein B-100 peptide 210 in subclinical atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jan;232(1):242-8

Authors: …

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of 130,000 individuals shows smoking does not modify the association of APOE genotype on risk of coronary heart disease.






A systematic review and meta-analysis of 130,000 individuals shows smoking does not modify the association of APOE genotype on risk of coronary heart disease.

Atherosclerosis. 2014 Aug 15;237(1):5-12

Authors: Holmes MV, Frikke-Schmidt R, Melis D, Luben R, Asselbergs FW, Boer JM, Cooper J, Palmen J, Horvat P, Engmann J, Li KW, Onland-Moret NC, Hofker MH, Kumari M, Keating BJ, Hubacek JA, Adamkova V, Kubinova R, Bobak M, Khaw KT, Nordestgaard BG, Wareham N, Humphries SE, Langenberg C, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Talmud PJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence exists on whether smoking acts as an effect modifier of the association between APOE genotype and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE to June 11, 2013 for published studies reporting APOE genotype, smoking status and CHD events and added unpublished data from population cohorts. We tested for presence of effect modification by smoking status in the relationship between APOE genotype and risk of CHD using likelihood ratio test. In total 13 studies (including unpublished data from eight cohorts) with 10,134 CHD events in 130,004 individuals of European descent were identified. The odds ratio (OR) for CHD risk from APOE genotype (ε4 carriers versus non-carriers) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.12) and for smoking (present vs. past/never smokers) was OR 2.05 (95%CI: 1.95, 2.14). When the association between APOE genotype and CHD was stratified by smoking status, compared to non-ε4 carriers, ε4 carriers had an OR of 1.11 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.21) in 28,789 present smokers and an OR of 1.04 (95%CI 0.98, 1.10) in 101,215 previous/never smokers, with no evidence of effect modification (P-value for heterogeneity = 0.19). Analysis of pack years in individual participant data of >60,000 with adjustment for cardiovascular traits also failed to identify evidence of effect modification.
CONCLUSIONS: In the largest analysis to date, we identified no evidence for effect modification by smoking status in the association between APOE genotype and risk of CHD.

PMID: 25173947 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Low levels of IgM antibodies against phosphorylcholine are associated with fast carotid intima media thickness progression and cardiovascular risk in men.






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Low levels of IgM antibodies against phosphorylcholine are associated with fast carotid intima media thickness progression and cardiovascular risk in men.

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The inverse association of incident cardiovascular disease with plasma bilirubin is unaffected by adiponectin.






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The inverse association of incident cardiovascular disease with plasma bilirubin is unaffected by adiponectin.

Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jun 3;235(2):380-383

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Plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, and choline and risk of peripheral artery disease.






Plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, and choline and risk of peripheral artery disease.

Atherosclerosis. 2014 Apr 28;235(1):94-101

Authors: Bertoia ML, Pai JK, Cooke JP, Joosten MM, Mittleman MA, Rimm EB, Mukamal KJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined the roles of homocysteine and related nutrients in the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD). We examined the associations between plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, choline, and supplemental folic acid use and incidence of PAD.
METHODS: We used two cohort studies of 72,348 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS, 1990-2010) and 44,504 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1986-2010). We measured plasma homocysteine in nested matched case-control studies of clinically recognized PAD within both cohorts, including 143 PAD cases and 424 controls within the NHS (1990-2010) and 143 PAD cases and 428 controls within the HPFS (1994-2008). We examined the association between diet and risk of incident PAD in the cohorts using a food frequency questionnaire and 790 cases of PAD over 3.1 million person-years of follow-up.
RESULTS: Higher homocysteine levels were positively associated with risk of PAD in men (adjusted IRR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.08-4.38 for tertile 3 vs. 1). There was no evidence of an association in women (adjusted IRR 1.14; 95% CI, 0.61-2.12). Similarly, higher folate intake, including supplements, was inversely associated with risk of PAD in men (adjusted HR 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98 for each 250 μg increase) but not women (HR 1.01, 95% CI, 0.88-1.15). Intakes of the other B vitamins, betaine, and choline were not consistently associated with risk of PAD in men or women.
CONCLUSION: Homocysteine levels were positively associated and dietary folate intake was inversely associated with risk of PAD in men but not in women.

PMID: 24819748 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Alterations in plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and myeloperoxidase in acute myocardial infarction: Implications for cardiac outcome.






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Alterations in plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and myeloperoxidase in acute myocardial infarction: Implications for cardiac outcome.

Atherosclerosis….

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The positive relationship of serum paraoxonase-1 activity with apolipoprotein E is abrogated in metabolic syndrome.






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The positive relationship of serum paraoxonase-1 activity with apolipoprotein E is abrogated in metabolic syndrome.

Atherosclerosis. 2013 Sep;230(1):6-11

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Are hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL causal factors in the development of insulin resistance?






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Are hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL causal factors in the development of insulin resistance?

Atherosclerosis. 2014 Mar;233(1):130-138

Authors: Li N, Fu…

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Epicatechin attenuates atherosclerosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet-induced human-CRP and NFκB in vivo.






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Epicatechin attenuates atherosclerosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet-induced human-CRP and NFκB in vivo.

Atherosclerosis. 2014 Mar;233(1):149-56

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Cholesterol-induced hepatic inflammation does not contribute to the development of insulin resistance in male LDL receptor knockout mice.






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Cholesterol-induced hepatic inflammation does not contribute to the development of insulin resistance in male LDL receptor knockout mice.

Atherosclerosis. 2014…

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