Category Archives: Psychol Med

Metacognitive group training for schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions: a randomized controlled trial.

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Metacognitive group training for schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions: a randomized controlled trial.

Psychol Med. 2014 Mar 26;:1-11

Authors: van Oosterhout B, Krabbendam L, de Boer K, Ferwerda J, van der Helm M, Stant AD, van der Gaag M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Metacognitive training (MCT) for patients with psychosis is a psychological group intervention that aims to educate patients about common cognitive biases underlying delusion formation and maintenance, and to highlight their negative consequences in daily functioning.
METHOD: In this randomized controlled trial, 154 schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions were randomly assigned to either MCT + treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Both groups were assessed at baseline, and again after 8 and 24 weeks. The trial was completed fully by 111 patients. Efficacy was measured with the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) Delusions Rating Scale (DRS), and with specific secondary measures referring to persecutory ideas and ideas of social reference (the Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale, GPTS), cognitive insight (the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, BCIS), subjective experiences of cognitive biases (the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale, DACOBS) and metacognitive beliefs (the 30-item Metacognitions Questionnaire, MCQ-30). Economic analysis focused on the balance between societal costs and health outcomes (quality-adjusted life years, QALYs).
RESULTS: Both conditions showed a decrease of delusions. MCT was not more efficacious in terms of reducing delusions, nor did it change subjective paranoid thinking and ideas of social reference, cognitive insight or subjective experience of cognitive biases and metacognitive beliefs. The results of the economic analysis were not in favour of MCT + TAU.
CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, MCT did not affect delusion scores and self-reported cognitive insight, or subjective experience of cognitive biases and metacognitive beliefs. MCT was not cost-effective.

PMID: 25066223 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Negative and positive life events are associated with small but lasting change in neuroticism.

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Negative and positive life events are associated with small but lasting change in neuroticism.

Psychol Med. 2013 Nov;43(11):2403-15

Authors: Jeronimus BF, Ormel J, Aleman A, Penninx BW, Riese H

Abstract
BACKGROUND: High neuroticism is prospectively associated with psychopathology and physical health. However, within-subject changes in neuroticism due to life experiences (LEs) or state effects of current psychopathology are largely unexplored. In this 2-year follow-up study, four hypotheses were tested: (1) positive LEs (PLEs) decrease and negative LEs (NLEs) increase neuroticism; (2) LE-driven change in neuroticism is partly long-lasting; and (3) partly independent of LE-driven changes in anxiety/depression; and (4) childhood adversity (before age 16 years) moderates the influence of NLEs/PLEs on neuroticism scores in adult life.
METHOD: Data came from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety [NESDA, n = 2981, mean age 41.99 years (s.d. = 13.08), 66.6% women]. At follow-up (T₂) we assessed PLEs/NLEs with the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) over the prior 24 months and categorized them over recent and distant PLE/NLE measures (1-3 and 4-24 months prior to T₂ respectively) to distinguish distant NLE/PLE-driven change in trait neuroticism (using the Dutch version of the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) from state deviations due to changes in symptoms of depression (self-rated version of the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, IDS-SR30) and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI).
RESULTS: Distant NLEs were associated with higher and distant PLEs with lower neuroticism scores. The effects of distant LEs were weak but long-lasting, especially for distant PLEs. Distant NLE-driven change in neuroticism was associated with change in symptoms of anxiety/depression whereas the effect of distant PLEs on neuroticism was independent of any such changes. Childhood adversity weakened the impact of distant NLEs but enhanced the impact of distant PLEs on neuroticism.
CONCLUSIONS: Distant PLEs are associated with small but long-lasting decreases in neuroticism regardless of changes in symptom levels of anxiety/depression. Long-lasting increases in neuroticism associated with distant NLEs are mediated by anxiety/depression.

PMID: 23410535 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Cognitive/affective and somatic/affective symptoms of depression in patients with heart disease and their association with cardiovascular prognosis: a meta-analysis.

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Cognitive/affective and somatic/affective symptoms of depression in patients with heart disease and their association with cardiovascular prognosis: a meta-analysis.

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The role of negative emotionality and impulsivity in depressive/anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence.

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The role of negative emotionality and impulsivity in depressive/anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence.

Psychol Med. 2013 Jun;43(6):1241-53

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Local cortical thinning links to resting-state disconnectivity in major depressive disorder.

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Local cortical thinning links to resting-state disconnectivity in major depressive disorder.

Psychol Med. 2013 Nov 1;:1-13

Authors: van Tol MJ, Li M, Metzger CD, Hailla N, Horn DI, Li W, Heinze HJ, Bogerts B, Steiner J, He H, Walter M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Local structural and metabolic as well as inter-regional connectivity abnormalities have been implicated in the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). How local tissue properties affect intrinsic functional connectivity is, however, unclear. Using a cross-sectional, multi-modal imaging approach, we investigated the relationship between local cortical tissue abnormalities and intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in MDD.
METHOD: A total of 20 MDD in-patients and 20 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T for structural and functional imaging. Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between groups. Regions with reduced cortical thickness defined seeds for subsequent whole-brain RSFC analyses. Contributions of structural tissue abnormalities on inter-regional RSFC were explicitly investigated.
RESULTS: Lower cortical thickness was observed in MDD in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), superior temporal gyrus/temporal pole, middle-posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral PFC. No differences in local fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were observed. Lower thickness in patients’ dorsomedial PFC further directly and selectively affected its RSFC with the precuneus, which was unaffected by symptom severity. No effects of cortical thickness in other regions showing abnormal thickness were observed to influence functional connectivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal cortical thickness in the dorsomedial PFC in MDD patients was observed to selectively and directly affect its intrinsic connectivity with the precuneus in MDD patients independent of depression severity, thereby marking a potential vulnerability for maladaptive mood regulation. Future studies should include an unmedicated sample and replicate findings using independent component analysis to test for morphometric effects on network integrity.

PMID: 24176247 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Presence of individual (residual) symptoms during depressive episodes and periods of remission: a 3-year prospective study.

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Presence of individual (residual) symptoms during depressive episodes and periods of remission: a 3-year prospective study.

Psychol Med. 2011 Jun;41(6):1165-74

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Empirical foundations for the diagnosis of somatization: implications for DSM-5.

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Empirical foundations for the diagnosis of somatization: implications for DSM-5.

Psychol Med. 2011 Jun;41(6):1133-42

Authors: Rosmalen JG, Tak LM, de…

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Association between anxiety but not depressive disorders and leukocyte telomere length after 2 years of follow-up in a population-based sample.

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Association between anxiety but not depressive disorders and leukocyte telomere length after 2 years of follow-up in a population-based sample.

Psychol Med. 2013…

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Does neuroticism make you old? Prospective associations between neuroticism and leukocyte telomere length.

Does neuroticism make you old? Prospective associations between neuroticism and leukocyte telomere length.

Psychol Med. 2013 Jul 9;:1-7

Authors: van Ockenburg SL, de Jonge P, van der Harst P, Ormel J, Rosmalen JG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Telomere attrition, causing accelerated aging, might be one of the mechanisms through which neuroticism leads to somatic disease and increased all-cause mortality. In the current study we investigated whether neuroticism is prospectively associated with shorter telomere length (TL), a biological marker of aging. Method Participants were 3432 adults (mean age 52.9 years, range 32-79). Data were collected at baseline (T1) and at two follow-up visits after 4 years (T2) and 6 years (T3). Neuroticism was assessed using the 12-item neuroticism scale of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) at T2 and T3. TL was measured by a monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay at T1, T2 and T3. A linear mixed model was used to assess whether neuroticism could predict TL prospectively after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), frequency of sports, smoking status, presence of chronic diseases and level of education.
RESULTS: Neuroticism was a significant negative predictor of TL at follow-up (B = -0.004, p = 0.044) after adjusting for sex, age, baseline TL and various biological and lifestyle factors.
CONCLUSIONS: High neuroticism is significantly and prospectively associated with telomere attrition independent of lifestyle and other risk factors.

PMID: 23834823 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Validation of the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) and the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) as measures of stress in epidemiological population-based cohort studies.

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Validation of the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) and the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) as measures of stress in epidemiological population-based cohort studies.
Psychol Med. 2012 Dec;42(12):2599-608
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An increase in depressive symptoms after myocardial infarction predicts new cardiac events irrespective of depressive symptoms before myocardial infarction.

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An increase in depressive symptoms after myocardial infarction predicts new cardiac events irrespective of depressive symptoms before myocardial infarction.

Psychol…

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Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence: differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?

Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence: differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?
Psychol Med. 2012 Mar;42(3):475-84
Authors: de Jong PJ, Sportel BE, de Hullu E, Nauta MH
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Auditory hallucinations in childhood: associations with adversity and delusional ideation.

Auditory hallucinations in childhood: associations with adversity and delusional ideation.
Psychol Med. 2012 Mar;42(3):583-93
Authors: Bartels-Velthuis AA, van de Willige G, Jenner JA, Wiersma D, van Os J
Abstract
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Neural correlates of perception of emotional facial expressions in out-patients with mild-to-moderate depression and anxiety. A multicenter fMRI study.

Neural correlates of perception of emotional facial expressions in out-patients with mild-to-moderate depression and anxiety. A multicenter fMRI study.
Psychol Med. 2011 May 6;:1-12
Authors: Demenescu LR, Renken R, Kortekaas R… Continue reading

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