Category Archives: Psychol Med

High educational performance is a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder: a study on cognition in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia patients, relatives and controls.

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High educational performance is a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder: a study on cognition in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia patients, relatives and controls. …

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Psychotic experiences and hyper-theory-of-mind in preadolescence – a birth cohort study.

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Psychotic experiences and hyper-theory-of-mind in preadolescence – a birth cohort study.

Psychol Med. 2015 Sep 8;:1-15

Authors: Clemmensen L, van Os J, Drukker M, Munkholm A, Rimvall MK, Væver M, Rask CU, Bartels-Velthuis AA, Skovgaard AM, Jeppesen P

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the risk mechanisms of psychotic experiences (PE) is still limited. The aim of this population-based study was to explore developmental markers of PE with a particular focus on the specificity of hyper-theory-of-mind (HyperToM) as correlate of PE as opposed to correlate of any mental disorder.
METHOD: We assessed 1630 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 regarding PE and HyperToM at the follow-up at 11-12 years. Mental disorders were diagnosed by clinical ratings based on standardized parent-, teacher- and self-reported psychopathology. Logistic regression analyses were performed to test the correlates of PE and HyperToM, and the specificity of correlates of PE v. correlates of any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) mental disorder.
RESULTS: Univariate analyses showed the following correlates of PE: familial psychiatric liability; parental mental illness during early child development; change in family composition; low family income; regulatory problems in infancy; onset of puberty; bullying; concurrent mental disorder; and HyperToM. When estimating the adjusted effects, only low family income, concurrent mental disorder, bullying and HyperToM remained significantly associated with PE. Further analyses of the specificity of these correlates with regard to outcome revealed that HyperToM was the only variable specifically associated with PE without concurrent mental disorder. Finally, HyperToM did not share any of the investigated precursors with PE.
CONCLUSIONS: HyperToM may have a specific role in the risk trajectories of PE, being specifically associated with PE in preadolescent children, independently of other family and child risk factors associated with PE and overall psychopathology at this age.

PMID: 26347066 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Stressful life events and leukocyte telomere attrition in adulthood: a prospective population-based cohort study.

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Stressful life events and leukocyte telomere attrition in adulthood: a prospective population-based cohort study.
Psychol Med. 2015 Jul 29;:1-10
Authors: van Ockenburg SL, Bos EH, de Jonge P, van der … Continue reading

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Childhood maltreatment modifies the relationship of depression with hippocampal volume.

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Childhood maltreatment modifies the relationship of depression with hippocampal volume.
Psychol Med. 2015 Jul 24;:1-10
Authors: Gerritsen L, van Velzen L, Schmaal L, van der Graaf Y, van der Wee N, va… Continue reading

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Metacognitive training for schizophrenia spectrum patients: a meta-analysis on outcome studies.

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Metacognitive training for schizophrenia spectrum patients: a meta-analysis on outcome studies.
Psychol Med. 2015 Jul 20;:1-11
Authors: van Oosterhout B, Smit F, Krabbendam L, Castelein S, Staring AB,… Continue reading

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Influence of DAT1 and COMT variants on neural activation during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

Influence of DAT1 and COMT variants on neural activation during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.
Psychol Med. 2015 Jun 15;:1-12
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The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring: results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study.

The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring: results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study.

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Bilateral hippocampal increase following first-episode psychosis is associated with good clinical, functional and cognitive outcomes.

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Bilateral hippocampal increase following first-episode psychosis is associated with good clinical, functional and cognitive outcomes.
Psychol Med. 2014 Apr;44(6):1279-91
Authors: Lappin JM, Morgan C, … Continue reading

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Exploring the underlying structure of mental disorders: cross-diagnostic differences and similarities from a network perspective using both a top-down and a bottom-up approach.

Exploring the underlying structure of mental disorders: cross-diagnostic differences and similarities from a network perspective using both a top-down and a bottom-up approach.
Psychol Med. 2015 Mar 25;:1-13
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Predicting mental disorders from hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning: a 3-year follow-up in the TRAILS study.

Predicting mental disorders from hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning: a 3-year follow-up in the TRAILS study.

Psychol Med. 2015 Mar 19;:1-10

Authors: Nederhof E, van Oort FV, Bouma EM, Laceulle OM, Oldehinkel AJ, Ormel J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, with cortisol as its major output hormone, has been presumed to play a key role in the development of psychopathology. Predicting affective disorders from diurnal cortisol levels has been inconclusive, whereas the predictive value of stress-induced cortisol concentrations has not been studied before. The aim of this study was to predict mental disorders over a 3-year follow-up from awakening and stress-induced cortisol concentrations.
METHOD: Data were used from 561 TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey) participants, a prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents. Saliva samples were collected at awakening and half an hour later and during a social stress test at age 16. Mental disorders were assessed 3 years later with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
RESULTS: A lower cortisol awakening response (CAR) marginally significantly predicted new disorders [odds ratio (OR) 0.77, p = 0.06]. A flat recovery slope predicted disorders with a first onset after the experimental session (OR 1.27, p = 0.04). Recovery revealed smaller, non-significant ORs when predicting new onset affective or anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, or dependence disorders in three separate models, corrected for all other new onsets.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that delayed recovery and possibly reduced CAR are indicators of a more general risk status and may be part of a common pathway to psychopathology. Delayed recovery suggests that individuals at risk for mental disorders perceived the social stress test as less controllable and less predictable.

PMID: 25786334 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Efficacy of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: results of a multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial.

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Efficacy of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: results of a multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Psychol Med. 2014 Oct 30;:1-13

Authors: Dlabac-de Lange JJ, Bais L, van Es FD, Visser BG, Reinink E, Bakker B, van den Heuvel ER, Aleman A, Knegtering H

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, reporting inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether 10 Hz stimulation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during 3 weeks enhances treatment effects.
METHOD: A multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed in 32 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, and moderate to severe negative symptoms [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale ⩾15]. Patients were randomized to a 3-week course of active or sham rTMS. Primary outcome was severity of negative symptoms as measured with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the PANSS negative symptom score. Secondary outcome measures included cognition, insight, quality of life and mood. Subjects were followed up at 4 weeks and at 3 months. For analysis of the data a mixed-effects linear model was used.
RESULTS: A significant improvement of the SANS in the active group compared with sham up to 3 months follow-up (p = 0.03) was found. The PANSS negative symptom scores did not show a significant change (p = 0.19). Of the cognitive tests, only one showed a significant improvement after rTMS as compared with sham. Finally, a significant change of insight was found with better scores in the treatment group.
CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral 10 Hz prefrontal rTMS reduced negative symptoms, as measured with the SANS. More studies are needed to investigate optimal parameters for rTMS, the cognitive effects and the neural basis.

PMID: 25354751 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and executive functioning in affected and unaffected adolescents and their parents: challenging the endophenotype construct.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and executive functioning in affected and unaffected adolescents and their parents: challenging the endophenotype construct.
Psychol Med. 2014 Mar;44(4):881-92
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Comparison of psychotherapies for adult depression to pill placebo control groups: a meta-analysis.

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Comparison of psychotherapies for adult depression to pill placebo control groups: a meta-analysis.

Psychol Med. 2014 Mar;44(4):685-95

Authors: Cuijpers P, Turner EH, Mohr DC, Hofmann SG, Andersson G, Berking M, Coyne J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The effects of antidepressants for treating depressive disorders have been overestimated because of selective publication of positive trials. Reanalyses that include unpublished trials have yielded reduced effect sizes. This in turn has led to claims that antidepressants have clinically insignificant advantages over placebo and that psychotherapy is therefore a better alternative. To test this, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing psychotherapy with pill placebo.
METHOD: Ten 10 studies comparing psychotherapies with pill placebo were identified. In total, 1240 patients were included in these studies. For each study, Hedges’ g was calculated. Characteristics of the studies were extracted for subgroup and meta-regression analyses.
RESULTS: The effect of psychotherapy compared to pill placebo at post-test was g = 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.36, I² = 0%, 95% CI 0-58]. This effect size corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 7.14 (95% CI 5.00-12.82). The psychotherapy conditions scored 2.66 points lower on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) than the placebo conditions, and 3.20 points lower on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Some indications for publication bias were found (two missing studies). We found no significant differences between subgroups of the studies and in meta-regression analyses we found no significant association between baseline severity and effect size.
CONCLUSIONS: Although there are differences between the role of placebo in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, psychotherapy has an effect size that is comparable to that of antidepressant medications. Whether these effects should be deemed clinically relevant remains open to debate.

PMID: 23552610 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Cost-effectiveness of preventing first-episode psychosis in ultra-high-risk subjects: multi-centre randomized controlled trial.

Cost-effectiveness of preventing first-episode psychosis in ultra-high-risk subjects: multi-centre randomized controlled trial.

Psychol Med. 2014 Oct 21;:1-12

Authors: Ising HK, Smit F, Veling W, Rietdijk J, Dragt S, Klaassen RM, Savelsberg NS, Boonstra N, Nieman DH, Linszen DH, Wunderink L, van der Gaag M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although there is evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for psychosis among ultra-high-risk (UHR) groups, health economic evaluations are lacking. This study aimed to determine the cost effectiveness and cost-utility of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) to prevent first-episode psychosis.
METHOD: The Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation study was a randomized controlled trial of 196 UHR patients with an 18-month follow-up. All participants were treated with routine care (RC) for non-psychotic disorders. The experimental group (n = 95) received add-on CBT to prevent first-episode psychosis. We report the intervention, medical and travel costs, as well as costs arising from loss of productivity. Treatment response was defined as psychosis-free survival and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained.
RESULTS: In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the proportion of averted psychoses was significantly higher in the CBT condition (89.5% v. 76.2%). CBT showed a 63.7% probability of being more cost effective, because it was less costly than RC by US$844 (£551) per prevented psychosis. In the cost-utility analysis, QALY health gains were slightly higher for CBT than for RC (0.60 v. 0.57) and the CBT intervention had a 52.3% probability of being the superior treatment because, for equal or better QALY gains, the costs of CBT were lower than those of RC.
CONCLUSIONS: Add-on preventive CBT for UHR resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of first psychosis. QALY gains show little difference between the two conditions. The CBT intervention proved to be cost saving.

PMID: 25330734 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Reciprocal effects of stable and temporary components of neuroticism and affective disorders: results of a longitudinal cohort study.

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Reciprocal effects of stable and temporary components of neuroticism and affective disorders: results of a longitudinal cohort study.
Psychol Med. 2014 Jan;44(2):337-48
Authors: Spinhoven P, Penelo E,… Continue reading

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Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of schizophrenia patients: characteristics and profile congruency with affected family members.

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Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of schizophrenia patients: characteristics and profile congruency with affected family members.
Psychol Med. 2014 Jan;44(2):395-405
Authors: Quee PJ, Alizad… Continue reading

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Childhood abuse and neglect in relation to the presence and persistence of psychotic and depressive symptomatology.

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Childhood abuse and neglect in relation to the presence and persistence of psychotic and depressive symptomatology.

Psychol Med. 2014 Jul 17;:1-15

Authors: van Dam DS, van Nierop M, Viechtbauer W, Velthorst E, van Winkel R, Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) investigators, Bruggeman R, Cahn W, de Haan L, Kahn RS, Meijer CJ, Myin-Germeys I, van Os J, Wiersma D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The association between childhood trauma and psychotic and depressive symptomatology is well established. However, less is known about the specificity and course of these symptoms in relation to childhood trauma.
METHOD: In a large sample (n = 2765) of patients with psychosis (n = 1119), their siblings (n = 1057) and controls (n = 589), multivariate (mixed-effects) regression analyses with multiple outcomes were performed to examine the association between childhood trauma and psychotic and depressive symptomatology over a 3-year period.
RESULTS: A dose-response relationship was found between childhood trauma and psychosis. Abuse was more strongly associated with positive symptoms than with negative symptoms whereas the strength of the associations between neglect and positive and negative symptoms was comparable. In patients, similar associations between childhood trauma and psychotic or depressive symptoms were found, and in siblings and controls, stronger associations were found between trauma and depressive symptomatology. Childhood trauma was not related to a differential course of symptoms over a 3-year time period.
CONCLUSIONS: In congruence with earlier work, our findings suggest that childhood trauma, and abuse in particular, is associated with (subthreshold) psychosis. However, childhood trauma does not seem to be associated with a differential course of symptoms, nor does it uniquely heighten the chance of developing (subthreshold) psychotic symptomatology. Our results indicate that trauma may instead contribute to a shared vulnerability for psychotic and depressive symptoms.

PMID: 25065372 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Genetic and environmental influences on cortical surface area and cortical thickness in bipolar disorder.

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Genetic and environmental influences on cortical surface area and cortical thickness in bipolar disorder.
Psychol Med. 2014 May 28;:1-12
Authors: Bootsman F, Brouwer RM, Schnack HG, van Baal GC, van d… Continue reading

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The effects of co-morbidity in defining major depression subtypes associated with long-term course and severity.

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The effects of co-morbidity in defining major depression subtypes associated with long-term course and severity.
Psychol Med. 2014 Jul 17;:1-14
Authors: Wardenaar KJ, van Loo HM, Cai T, Fava M, Gruber… Continue reading

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Mental health in Dutch adolescents: a TRAILS report on prevalence, severity, age of onset, continuity and co-morbidity of DSM disorders.

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Mental health in Dutch adolescents: a TRAILS report on prevalence, severity, age of onset, continuity and co-morbidity of DSM disorders.
Psychol Med. 2014 Jun 20;:1-16
Authors: Ormel J, Raven D, van O… Continue reading

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