Category Archives: Front Pediatr

Maturation of Intestinal Oxygenation: A Review of Mechanisms and Clinical Implications for Preterm Neonates.

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Maturation of Intestinal Oxygenation: A Review of Mechanisms and Clinical Implications for Preterm Neonates.
Front Pediatr. 2020;8:354
Authors: Dotinga BM, Mintzer JP, Moore JE, Hulscher JBF, Bos … Continue reading

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Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase.

Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase.

Front Pediatr. 2015;3:71

Authors: van Loon RL, Bartelds B, Wagener FA, Affara N, Mohaupt S, Wijnberg H, Pennings SW, Takens J, Berger RM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1).
METHODS: Rats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO in the presence or absence of the selective HO-activity inhibitor tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP). HO activity, circulating EPCs and pulmonary vascular lesions were assessed after 3 weeks.
RESULTS: In PAH rats, circulating EPCs were decreased and HO activity was increased compared to control. EPO treatment restored circulating EPCs and improved pulmonary vascular remodeling, as shown by a reduced wall thickness and occlusion rate of the intra-acinar vessels. Inhibition of HO activity with SnMP aggravated PAH. Moreover, SnMP treatment abrogated EPO-induced amelioration of pulmonary vascular remodeling, while surprisingly further increasing circulating EPCs as compared with EPO alone.
CONCLUSION: In experimental PAH, EPO treatment restored the number of circulating EPCs to control level, improved pulmonary vascular remodeling, and showed important interplay with HO activity. Inhibition of increased HO activity in PAH rats exacerbated progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling, despite the presence of restored number of circulating EPCs. We suggest that both EPO-induced HO-1 and EPCs are promising targets to ameliorate the pulmonary vasculature in PAH.

PMID: 26380246 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Early visual attention in preterm and fullterm infants in relation to cognitive and motor outcomes at school age: an exploratory study.

Early visual attention in preterm and fullterm infants in relation to cognitive and motor outcomes at school age: an exploratory study.

Front Pediatr. 2014;2:106

Authors: Hitzert MM, Van Braeckel KN, Bos AF, Hunnius S, Geuze RH

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Preterm infants are exposed to the visual environment earlier than fullterm infants, but whether early exposure affects later development is unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether the development of visual disengagement capacity during the first 6 months postterm was associated with cognitive and motor outcomes at school age, and whether associations differed between fullterms and low-risk preterms.
METHOD: Seventeen fullterms and ten low-risk preterms were tested in a gaze shifting task every 4 weeks until 6 months postterm. The longitudinal data were converted into single continuous variables by fitting the data with an S-shaped curve (frequencies of looks) or an inverse model (latencies of looks). Neuropsychological test results at school age were converted into composite z scores. We then performed linear regression analyses for each functional domain at school age with the variables measuring infant visual attention as separate predictors and adjusting for maternal level of education and group (fullterms versus preterms). We included an interaction term, visual attention*group, to determine whether predictive relations differed between fullterms and preterms.
RESULTS: A slower development of disengagement predicted poorer performance on attention, motor skills, and handwriting, irrespective of fullterm or preterm birth. Predictive relationships differed marginally between fullterms and preterms for inhibitory attentional control (P = 0.054) and comprehensive reading (P = 0.064).
CONCLUSION: This exploratory study yielded no indications of a clear advantage or disadvantage of the extra visual exposure in healthy preterm infants. We tentatively conclude that additional visual exposure does not interfere with the ongoing development of neuronal networks during this vulnerable period of brain development.

PMID: 25340045 [PubMed]

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