Category Archives: Psychoneuroendocrinology

A healthy peer status: Peer preference, not popularity, predicts lower systemic inflammation in adolescence.

A healthy peer status: Peer preference, not popularity, predicts lower systemic inflammation in adolescence.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2019 Aug 09;109:104402
Authors: de Bruine M, Giletta M, Denissen JJA, Sijtsema … Continue reading

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Prognostic effect of serum BDNF levels in late-life depression: Moderated by childhood trauma and SSRI usage?

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Prognostic effect of serum BDNF levels in late-life depression: Moderated by childhood trauma and SSRI usage?
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2019 Feb 07;103:276-283
Authors: Dimitriadis M, van den Brink … Continue reading

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The temporal dynamics of cortisol and affective states in depressed and non-depressed individuals.

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The temporal dynamics of cortisol and affective states in depressed and non-depressed individuals.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Mar 18;69:16-25
Authors: Booij SH, Bos EH, de Jonge P, Oldehinkel AJ
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Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in older persons with and without a depressive disorder.

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Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in older persons with and without a depressive disorder.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Jan;51:341-50
Authors: Rhebergen D, Korten NC, Penninx BW, Stek ML… Continue reading

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How to assess stress biomarkers for idiographic research?

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How to assess stress biomarkers for idiographic research?

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Aug 8;62:189-199

Authors: van Ockenburg SL, Booij SH,…

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Supraphysiological hormonal status, anxiety disorders, and COMT Val/Val genotype are associated with reduced sensorimotor gating in women.

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Supraphysiological hormonal status, anxiety disorders, and COMT Val/Val genotype are associated with reduced sensorimotor gating in women.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Jul 2;60:217-223

Authors: Comasco E, Hellgren C, Olivier J, Skalkidou A, Sundström Poromaa I

Abstract
Pregnancy is a period characterized by a supraphysiological hormonal status, and greater anxiety proneness, which can lead to peripartum affective symptoms with dramatic consequences not only for the woman but also for the child. Clinical psychiatry is heavily hampered by the paucity of objective and biology-based intermediate phenotypes. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, a neurophysiological measure of sensorimotor gating, has been poorly investigated in relation to anxiety and in pregnant women. In the present study, the PPI of healthy non-pregnant women (n=82) and late pregnant women (n=217) was investigated. Age, BMI, depression and anxiety symptoms, tobacco use, and antidepressant medication were considered. We investigated and provided evidence of lower PPI: (i) in healthy pregnant women compared to healthy non-pregnant controls, (ii) in pregnant women with anxiety disorders compared to healthy pregnant women, (iii) in pregnant women with anxiety disorders using SSRI compared to un-medicated pregnant women with anxiety disorders, and (iv) in healthy pregnant women carrying the COMT Val158Met Val/Val genotype compared to Met carriers. Altogether, a reduced sensorimotor gating as an effect of supraphysiological hormonal status, anxiety disorders, SSRIs, and catecholaminergic genotype, implicate the putative relevance of lower PPI as an objective biological correlate of anxiety proneness in pregnant women. These findings call for prospective studies to dissect the multifactorial influences on PPI in relation to mental health of pregnant women.

PMID: 26189199 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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DHEAS and cortisol/DHEAS-ratio in recurrent depression: State, or trait predicting 10-year recurrence?

DHEAS and cortisol/DHEAS-ratio in recurrent depression: State, or trait predicting 10-year recurrence?

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 May 21;59:91-101

Authors: Mocking RJ, Pellikaan CM, Lok A, Assies J, Ruhé HG, Koeter MW, Visser I, Bockting CL, Olff M, Schene AH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with low dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), – particularly relative to high cortisol – although conflicting findings exist. Moreover, it is unclear whether low DHEAS is only present during the depressive state, or manifests as a trait that may reflect vulnerability for recurrence. Therefore, we longitudinally tested whether low DHEAS and high cortisol/DHEAS-ratio in recurrent MDD (I) reflects a trait, and/or (II) varies with depressive state. In addition, we tested associations with (III) previous MDD-episodes, (IV) prospective recurrence, and (V) effects of cognitive therapy.
METHODS: At study-entry, we cross-sectionally compared morning and evening salivary DHEAS and molar cortisol/DHEAS-ratio of 187 remitted recurrent MDD-patients with 72 matched controls. Subsequently, patients participated in an 8-week randomized controlled cognitive therapy trial. We repeated salivary measures after 3 months and 2 years. We measured clinical symptoms during a 10-year follow-up.
RESULTS: Remitted patients showed steeper diurnal DHEAS-decline (p<.005) and a flatter diurnal profile of cortisol/DHEAS-ratio (p<.001) than controls. We found no state-effect in DHEAS or cortisol/DHEAS-ratio throughout follow-up and no association with number of previous episodes. Higher morning cortisol/DHEAS-ratio predicted shorter time till recurrence over the 10-year follow-up in interaction with the effects of cognitive therapy (p<.05). Finally, cognitive therapy did not influence DHEAS or cortisol/DHEAS-ratio.
CONCLUSIONS: Diurnal profiles of DHEAS and cortisol/DHEAS-ratio remain equally altered in between depressive episodes, and may predict future recurrence. This suggests they represent an endophenotypic vulnerability trait rather than a state-effect, which provides a new road to understand recurrent depression and its prevention.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN68246470.

PMID: 26036454 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Fatty acid metabolism and its longitudinal relationship with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in major depression: Associations with prospective antidepressant response.

Fatty acid metabolism and its longitudinal relationship with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in major depression: Associations with prospective antidepressant response.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 May 11;59:1-13

Authors: Mocking RJ, Verburg HF, Westerink AM, Assies J, Vaz FM, Koeter MW, Ruhé HG, Schene AH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Metabolism of dietary fatty acids (FAs), and its relationship with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, have been found to be altered in major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, indications exist that these factors are associated with antidepressant-response. If we better understand these associations, we might identify novel targets for add-on therapy to increase antidepressant-response, and/or early indicators to improve response prediction.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether alterations in FA-metabolism, and their relationship with the HPA-axis, are associated with prospective response to the antidepressant paroxetine in MDD.
DESIGN: We first compared 70 initially unmedicated MDD-patients with 51 age- and gender-matched controls at study-entry, regarding salivary cortisol and erythrocyte membrane FAs [omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), FA-chain length, -unsaturation and -peroxidizability]. Subsequently, we treated patients with 6 weeks 20mg/day selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine. After 6 weeks, we continued this treatment in responders (i.e. showing ≥50% decrease in Hamilton depression rating scale-score), and randomized non-responders to a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-escalation up to 50mg/day. We repeated cortisol and FA-measures in patients after 6 and 12 weeks.
RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients showed higher FA-chain length, FA-unsaturation and FA-peroxidation, and more negative relationships of FA-unsaturation and FA-peroxidation with cortisol. Moreover, these negative relationships were associated with paroxetine nonresponse. Nonresponse was also associated with low DHA, which was related to low fatty fish intake. Furthermore, early responders showed initial low FA-chain length, FA-peroxidation and EPA that increased during the study, while non-responders exhibited opposite patterns.
CONCLUSIONS: FA-metabolism alterations, and their relationship with cortisol, are associated with prospective paroxetine response in MDD, and may therefore form an early indicator of treatment effectiveness. Moreover, dietary fatty fish intake may improve antidepressant response through an effect on FA-metabolism.

PMID: 26010860 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy is associated with elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone levels.

Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy is associated with elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone levels.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Apr 21;58:104-113

Authors: Hannerfors AK, Hellgren C, Schijven D, Iliadis SI, Comasco E, Skalkidou A, Olivier JD, Sundström-Poromaa I

Abstract
Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, but causality remains unclear. While placental CRH production is correlated with gestational length and preterm birth, it has been difficult to establish if psychological stress or mental health problems are associated with increased CRH levels. This study compared second trimester CRH serum concentrations in pregnant women on SSRI treatment (n=207) with untreated depressed women (n=56) and controls (n=609). A secondary aim was to investigate the combined effect of SSRI treatment and CRH levels on gestational length and risk for preterm birth. Women on SSRI treatment had significantly higher second trimester CRH levels than controls, and untreated depressed women. CRH levels and SSRI treatment were independently associated with shorter gestational length. The combined effect of SSRI treatment and high CRH levels yielded the highest risk estimate for preterm birth. SSRI treatment during pregnancy is associated with increased CRH levels. However, the elevated risk for preterm birth in SSRI users appear not to be mediated by increased placental CRH production, instead CRH appear as an independent risk factor for shorter gestational length and preterm birth.

PMID: 25978816 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Glucocorticoid receptor gene methylation and HPA-axis regulation in adolescents. The TRAILS study.

Glucocorticoid receptor gene methylation and HPA-axis regulation in adolescents. The TRAILS study.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Apr 24;58:46-50
Authors: van der Knaap LJ, Oldehinkel AJ, Verhulst FC, van Oort FV, Ri… Continue reading

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Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor polymorphisms and recurrence of major depressive disorder.

Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor polymorphisms and recurrence of major depressive disorder.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Feb 26;55:154-163

Authors: Hardeveld F, Spijker J, Peyrot WJ, de Graaf R, Hendriks SM, Nolen WA, Penninx BW, Beekman AT

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Previous research found that variants of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) (9β, ER22/23EK, BclI, TthIIIl, NR3C1-1 and N363S) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene polymorphism (-2 C/G and I180V) are associated with both glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity and major depressive disorder (MDD). There are no data which investigated prospectively whether these variants are associated with recurrence of MDD.
METHODS: Data were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) which used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to determine MDD. Polymorphisms in the GR and MR gene were determined and haplotypes were characterized. We analyzed in retrospect whether recurrent MDD (n=951) in comparison with first onset MDD (n=919) was associated with polymorphisms in the GR and MR gene. Furthermore, we analyzed prospectively for 4 years the time to recurrence among 683 subjects with a remitted MDD diagnosis. Time to recurrence of MDD was assessed using the CIDI and a life chart interview. Additionally, we analyzed interactions of the investigated polymorphisms with childhood trauma and recent negative life events.
RESULTS: GR and MR gene polymorphisms and derived haplotypes were not associated with recurrence of depression in both retrospective and prospective analyses. In addition, no consistent interactions between GR and MR polymorphisms and childhood trauma or life events were found.
CONCLUSION: This study did not find consistent associations between GR and MR gene polymorphisms, interactions between GR and MR haplotypes and stressful conditions and recurrence of MDD.

PMID: 25765757 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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The effects of two different doses of hydrocortisone on cognition in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency – Results from a randomized controlled trial.

The effects of two different doses of hydrocortisone on cognition in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency – Results from a randomized controlled trial.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Feb 10;55C:36-47
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Longitudinal effects of the SSRI paroxetine on salivary cortisol in Major Depressive Disorder.

Longitudinal effects of the SSRI paroxetine on salivary cortisol in Major Depressive Disorder.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Nov 26;52C:261-271

Authors: Ruhé HG, Khoenkhoen SJ, Ottenhof KW, Koeter MW, Mocking RJ, Schene AH

Abstract
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation is a prominent finding in more severe Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and is characterized by increased baseline cortisol levels at awakening (BCL), blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR) and increased area under the cortisol curve (AUC). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) appear to normalize HPA-axis dysfunction, but this is hardly investigated longitudinally. We studied salivary BCL, CAR and AUC at awakening and 30min thereafter. We compared measurements in initially drug-free MDD-patients with healthy controls (HCs) at study-entry. In patients, we repeated measures after 6 and 12 weeks’ treatment with the SSRI paroxetine. Non-responding patients received a randomized dose-escalation after six weeks’ treatment. We found no significant study-entry differences in BLC, CAR or AUC between MDD-patients (n=70) and controls (n=51). In MDD-patients, we found general decreases of BCL and AUC during paroxetine treatment (p≤0.007), especially in late and non-responders. Importantly, while overall CAR did not change significantly over time, it robustly increased over 12 weeks especially when patients achieved remission (p≤0.041). The dose-escalation intervention did not significantly influence CAR or other cortisol parameters. In conclusion, paroxetine seems to interfere with HPA-axis dysregulation, reflected in significant overall decreases in BCL and AUC during treatment. Paroxetine appears to decrease HPA-axis set-point in MDD, which might result in increased HPA-axis activity over time, which is further improved when patients achieve remission (ISRCTN register nr. ISRCTN44111488).

PMID: 25544738 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Acute and repeated intranasal oxytocin administration exerts anti-aggressive and pro-affiliative effects in male rats.

Acute and repeated intranasal oxytocin administration exerts anti-aggressive and pro-affiliative effects in male rats.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Oct 7;51C:112-121
Authors: Calcagnoli F, Kreutzmann JC, de Boer SF… Continue reading

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Increased cortisol awakening response was associated with time to recurrence of major depressive disorder.

Increased cortisol awakening response was associated with time to recurrence of major depressive disorder.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Aug 12;50C:62-71
Authors: Hardeveld F, Spijker J, Vreeburg SA, Graaf RD, Hendr… Continue reading

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Sex-specific associations between Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and cognitive domains in late-life depression.

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Sex-specific associations between Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and cognitive domains in late-life depression.

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24h urinary free cortisol in large-scale epidemiological studies: Short-term and long-term stability and sources of variability.

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24h urinary free cortisol in large-scale epidemiological studies: Short-term and long-term stability and sources of variability.

Psychoneuroendocrinology….

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Does tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway mediate the association between pro-inflammatory immune activity and depressive symptoms?

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Does tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway mediate the association between pro-inflammatory immune activity and depressive symptoms?

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Jul;45:202-10

Authors: Quak J, Doornbos B, Roest AM, Duivis HE, Vogelzangs N, Nolen WA, Penninx BW, Kema IP, de Jonge P

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that induced tryptophan (TRP) degradation through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is implicated in the relation between depression and inflammation. We investigated the role of tryptophan degradation in the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and hypothesized that tryptophan degradation would mediate (part of) this association.
METHODS: 2812 Participants of NESDA were included in this study including 1042 persons with current major depressive disorder (MDD). Assessments of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, KYN and TRP were obtained from fasting blood samples at the baseline assessment. Tryptophan degradation was estimated by calculating the ratio [KYN/TRP]. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology.
RESULTS: Significant associations between inflammation and depressive symptoms were found for CRP and IL-6, for the total group and the subgroup of patients with current MDD. Adjustment for KYN/TRP did not attenuate these associations. There were no significant indirect effects for CRP on depressive symptoms mediated by KYN/TRP for the whole group (B=-0.032; 95% CI: -0.103 to 0.028) and for the subgroup of patients with current MDD (B=0.059; 95% CI: -0.037 to 0.165). Also IL-6 did not indirectly affect depressive symptoms through KYN/TRP in the total group (B=-0.023; 95% CI: -0.093 to 0.045) and in the MDD subgroup B=0.052; 95% CI: -0.019 to 0.144). Finally, no significant relation between depressive symptoms and KYN/TRP was found in the whole group (β=-0.019, p=0.311) nor in the subgroup with MDD (β=0.025, p=0.424).
CONCLUSIONS: We did not find indications for tryptophan degradation, measured by KYN/TRP, to mediate the relationship between inflammation and depressive symptoms.

PMID: 24845191 [PubMed – in process]

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BDNF in late-life depression: Effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse.

BDNF in late-life depression: Effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 May;43:81-9
Authors: van der Meij A, Comijs HC, Dols A, Janzing JG, Oude Voshaar RC
Abst… Continue reading

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Cortisol in the morning and dimensions of anxiety, depression, and aggression in children from a general population and clinic-referred cohort: An integrated analysis. The TRAILS study.

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Cortisol in the morning and dimensions of anxiety, depression, and aggression in children from a general population and clinic-referred cohort: An integrated analysis. The…

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