Who gains the most from improving working conditions? Health-related absenteeism and presenteeism due to stress at work.

Who gains the most from improving working conditions? Health-related absenteeism and presenteeism due to stress at work.

Eur J Health Econ. 2019 Jul 15;:

Authors: Brunner B, Igic I, Keller AC, Wieser S

Abstract
Work stress-related productivity losses represent a substantial economic burden. In this study, we estimate the effects of social and task-related stressors and resources at work on health-related productivity losses caused by absenteeism and presenteeism. We also explore the interaction effects between job stressors, job resources and personal resources and estimate the costs of work stress. Work stress is defined as exposure to an unfavorable combination of high job stressors and low job resources. The study is based on a repeated survey assessing work productivity and workplace characteristics among Swiss employees. We use a representative cross-sectional data set and a longitudinal data set and apply both OLS and fixed effects models. We find that an increase in task-related and social job stressors increases health-related productivity losses, whereas an increase in social job resources and personal resources (measured by occupational self-efficacy) reduces these losses. Moreover, we find that job stressors have a stronger effect on health-related productivity losses for employees lacking personal and job resources, and that employees with high levels of job stressors and low personal resources will profit the most from an increase in job resources. Productivity losses due to absenteeism and presenteeism attributable to work stress are estimated at 195 Swiss francs per person and month. Our study has implications for interventions aiming to reduce health absenteeism and presenteeism.

PMID: 31309366 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Contemporaneous Statistics for Estimation in Stochastic Actor-Oriented Co-evolution Models.

Contemporaneous Statistics for Estimation in Stochastic Actor-Oriented Co-evolution Models.

Psychometrika. 2019 Jul 15;:

Authors: Amati V, Schönenberger F, Snijders TAB

Abstract
Stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) can be used to analyse dynamic network data, collected by observing a network and a behaviour in a panel design. The parameters of SAOMs are usually estimated by the method of moments (MoM) implemented by a stochastic approximation algorithm, where statistics defining the moment conditions correspond in a natural way to the parameters. Here, we propose to apply the generalized method of moments (GMoM), using more statistics than parameters. We concentrate on statistics depending jointly on the network and the behaviour, because of the importance of their interdependence, and propose to add contemporaneous statistics to the usual cross-lagged statistics. We describe the stochastic algorithm developed to approximate the GMoM solution. A small simulation study supports the greater statistical efficiency of the GMoM estimator compared to the MoM.

PMID: 31309405 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Can you have multiple attentional templates? Large-scale replications of Van Moorselaar, Theeuwes, and Olivers (2014) and Hollingworth and Beck (2016).

Can you have multiple attentional templates? Large-scale replications of Van Moorselaar, Theeuwes, and Olivers (2014) and Hollingworth and Beck (2016).

Atten Percept Psychophys. 2019 Jul 15;:

Authors: Frătescu M, Van Moorselaar D, Mathôt S

Abstract
Stimuli that resemble the content of visual working memory (VWM) capture attention. However, theories disagree on how many VWM items can bias attention simultaneously. According to some theories, there is a distinction between active and passive states in VWM, such that only items held in an active state can bias attention. The single-item-template hypothesis holds that only one item can be in an active state and thus can bias attention. In contrast, the multiple-item-template hypothesis posits that multiple VWM items can be in an activate state simultaneously, and thus can bias attention. Recently, Van Moorselaar, Theeuwes, and Olivers (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(4):1450, 2014) and Hollingworth and Beck (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42(7):911-917, 2016) tested these accounts, but obtained seemingly contradictory results. Van Moorselaar et al. (2014) found that a distractor in a visual-search task captured attention more when it matched the content of VWM (memory-driven capture). Crucially, memory-driven capture disappeared when more than one item was held in VWM, in line with the single-item-template hypothesis. In contrast, Hollingworth and Beck (2016) found memory-driven capture even when multiple items were kept in VWM, in line with the multiple-item-template hypothesis. Considering these mixed results, we replicated both studies with a larger sample, and found that all key results are reliable. It is unclear to what extent these divergent results are due to paradigm differences between the studies. We conclude that is crucial to our understanding of VWM to determine the boundary conditions under which memory-driven capture occurs.

PMID: 31309532 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Author response to Letter to the Editor: “Statins and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”.

Author response to Letter to the Editor: “Statins and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”.

Liver Int. 2019 Jul 16;:

Authors: van den Berg EH, de Meijer VE, Blokzijl H

Abstract
We thank Angelico and colleagues for their interest in our recent article in which we revealed that a substantial proportion of subjects with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased cardiovascular risk and subjects with dyslipidemias such as high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol could benefit from lipid-lowering treatment with statins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31310401 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Interdependence of diagnostics and epidemiology, a European perspective: Position paper on the need for an intrinsic cooperation and data sharing.

Interdependence of diagnostics and epidemiology, a European perspective: Position paper on the need for an intrinsic cooperation and data sharing.

J Clin Virol. 2019 Jul 04;118:6-8

Authors: van Genne MK, Poelman R, Cassidy H, Meessen NEL, Niesters HGM

Abstract
For some well-known pathogens like influenza or RSV, diagnostic and epidemiological data is available and continuously complement each other. For most other pathogens however, data is not always available or severely delayed. Furthermore, clinical data is needed to assess the burden of disease, which will enhance awareness and help to gain knowledge on emerging pathogens. In this position paper, we discuss the interdependence of diagnostics and epidemiology from a European perspective. In 2004, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was founded to coordinate European wide surveillance and control. At present however, the ECDC still relies on university hospitals, public health institutions and other diagnostic institutions. Close collaboration between all stakeholders across Europe is therefore complex, but necessary to optimize the system for the individual patient. From the diagnostic side, data on detected pathogens should be shared with relevant health institutions in real-time. From the public health side, collected information should be made accessible for diagnostic and clinical institutions in real-time. Subsequently, this information needs to be disseminated across relevant medical disciplines to reach its full potential.

PMID: 31301517 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Moleculaire factoren die de functie van de vetverbranding beïnvloeden in de gezonde en MCAD-deficiënte lever

Anne-Claire Martines: Exploring the mechanisms underlying the phenotype of MCAD deficiency with Systems Medicine. From computational model to mice to …

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Effecten van elektrisch poetsen en antibacteriële middelen

​Marieke van de Lagemaat: Antibacterial measures for biofilm control Beugels kunnen de functie van het tand-kaakstelsel en de esthetiek verbeteren, …

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Vooruitgang van de behandeling bij atypische kraakbeentumoren

​Edwin Dierselhuis: Advances of treatment in atypical cartilaginous tumours Sarcomen zijn een zeldzame vorm van kanker die jaarlijks bij 1% van de …

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Programmering van de volwassen metabole gezondheid

​Mirjam Lohuis: Programming of adult metabolic health. The roles of dietary cholesterol and microbiota in early life De prevalentie van obesitas is …

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Op weg naar nieuwe gepersonaliseerde behandelingsopties voor patiënten met genoom instabiele tumoren

​Stephanie van Gijn: Towards new personalized treatment options for patients with genomically unstable tumors DNA replicatie is de basis van …

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Quaternaire ammoniumverbindingen om orale biofilmvorming te voorkomen

​Mari Miura Sugii: Quaternary ammonium compounds to prevent oral biofilm formation Bacteriële besmetting is een onderwerp van grote zorg voor de …

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Neurofysiologische signatuur van visuele hallucinaties

​Meenakshi Dauwan: Neurophysiological signature(s) of visual hallucinations across neurological and perceptual disorders and non-invasive treatment …

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De uitdaging van een cel om nucleaire poriecomplexen te maken en te behouden bij het ouder worden

Irina Rempel: Poor old pores. The cell’s challenge to make and maintain nuclear pore complexes in agin ​Vele moleculen moeten tussen de celkern en …

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Visual saliency influences ethical blind spots and (dis)honesty.

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Visual saliency influences ethical blind spots and (dis)honesty.

Psychon Bull Rev. 2019 Jul 06;:

Authors: Pittarello A, Frătescu M, Mathôt S

Abstract
Recent work suggests that dishonesty results from ethical blind spots: people’s lack of attention to ethical information. In two experiments (one pre-registered) we used eye tracking to investigate when ethical blind spots emerge, and whether they can be reduced through a simple, non-invasive intervention. Participants reported a Target Digit indicated by a jittery cue that was slightly biased in the direction of another digit (the Second-Cued Digit), which could be either higher or lower than the Target Digit. Participants were paid more for reporting higher digits, and were not penalized for making mistakes, thus providing an incentive to cheat. Results showed that participants frequently made self-serving (and rarely self-hurting) mistakes by reporting the Second-Cued Digit when it was more valuable than the target. Importantly, they rapidly gazed at the digit that they would later report, regardless of whether this report was correct or a self-serving mistake. Finally, we were able to reduce or increase the number of self-serving mistakes by respectively increasing or reducing the visual saliency of the Target Digit. We suggest that increasing the visual saliency of morally desirable options is a promising cost-effective tool to curb dishonesty.

PMID: 31280467 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Analyse van nieuwe diagnostiek en technologieën bij endovasculair herstel van het aorta abdominalis aneurysma

​Kim van Noort: Analysis of new diagnostics and technologies in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair Van Noort had als doel van haar proefschrift …

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Acute buikpijn bij kinderen

​Marjolijn Timmerman: Acute abdominal pain in children Timmerman had als doel van haar proefschrift om de kennis met betrekking tot het …

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Aanpassingen in de stofwisseling van de bacterie Staphylococcus aureus kunnen de uitkomst van een stafylokokkeninfectie bepalen

Laura Palma Medina: Between adaptation and virulence: a proteomics view on Staphylococcus aureus infections​ Palma Medina richtte zich in haar …

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Type VII collageen in de intraoculaire omgeving

​Bart Wullink: Type VII collagen in the intraocular environment In zijn proefschrift probeert Wullink de eigenschappen van collageen type VII (Col …

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Sex difference in corticosterone-induced insulin resistance in mice.

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Sex difference in corticosterone-induced insulin resistance in mice.

Endocrinology. 2019 Jul 02;:

Authors: Kaikaew K, Steenbergen J, van Dijk TH, Grefhorst A, Visser JA

Abstract
Prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) causes various metabolic derangements. These include obesity and insulin resistance since inhibiting glucose utilization in adipose tissues is a major function of GC. Although adipose tissue distribution and glucose homeostasis are sex-dependently regulated, it has not been evaluated whether GC affects glucose metabolism and adipose tissue functions in a sex-dependent manner. In this study, high-dose corticosterone (rodent GC) treatment in C57BL/6J mice resulted in non-fasting hyperglycemia in male mice only while both sexes displayed hyperinsulinemia with normal fasting glucose levels, indicative for insulin resistance. Metabolic testing using stable isotope-labeled glucose techniques revealed a sex-specific corticosterone-driven glucose intolerance. Corticosterone treatment increased adipose tissue mass in both sexes, which was reflected by elevated serum leptin levels. However, female mice showed more metabolically protective adaptations of adipose tissues than male mice, demonstrated by higher serum total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels, more hyperplastic morphological changes, and a stronger increase in mRNA expression of adipogenic differentiation markers. Subsequently, in vitro studies in 3T3-L1 (white) and T37i (brown) adipocytes suggest that the increased leptin and adiponectin levels were mainly driven by the elevated insulin levels. In summary, this study demonstrates that GC-induced insulin resistance is more severe in male than in female mice, which can be partially explained by a sex-dependent adaptation of adipose tissues.

PMID: 31265057 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Bewegingsstoornissen met debuut op jonge leeftijd

​Martje van Egmond: Young-onset movement disorders. Genetic advances require a new clinical approach Van Egmond richtte zich in haar proefschrift op …

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