Decreased erythrocyte CD44 and CD58 expression link e-waste Pb toxicity to changes in erythrocyte immunity in preschool children.
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Feb 05;664:690-697
Authors: Huo X, Dai Y, Yang T, Zhang Y, Li M, Xu X
Lead (Pb) toxicity damages blood cells and disturbs the immune micro-environment. When Pb enters the circulatory system, >95% of Pb accumulates in erythrocytes. We therefore conducted this study to explore the long-term effect of Pb exposure on expression of erythrocyte adhesion molecules (CD44 and CD58) and related downstream cytokine concentrations. We enrolled a total of 267 preschool children, 2-7 years of age, from Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group, n = 132) and Haojiang (reference group, n = 135) in November and December 2015. We measured child blood Pb, biomarkers including erythrocyte CD44 and CD58, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ), and calculated erythrocyte Pb levels. Regression model demonstrated that higher erythrocyte Pb was associated with lower CD44 and CD58. Compared to low erythrocyte Pb levels (quartile 1), high erythrocyte Pb levels (quartile 4) were related to lower levels of erythrocyte CD44 and CD58. Elevated blood Pb correlated with higher IL-12p70 and IFN-γ, and lower IL-2. The mediation effect of erythrocyte CD44 on the relationship of erythrocyte Pb with IL-1β and IL-12p70 was significant, and the effect of erythrocyte Pb on IFN-γ was mediated by erythrocyte CD58. The data provides novel translational insight into the relationship between elevated Pb exposure and the change of erythrocyte immunity and downstream cytokine secretion in preschool children.
PMID: 30763849 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Differential DNA methylation in newborns with maternal exposure to heavy metals from an e-waste recycling area.
Environ Res. 2019 Jan 06;171:536-545
Authors: Zeng Z, Huo X, Zhang Y, Hylkema MN, Wu Y, Xu X
This study explored the effects of maternal exposure to e-waste environmental heavy metals on neonatal DNA methylation patterns. Neonatal umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from participants that resided in an e-waste recycling area, Guiyu and a nearby non-e-waste area, Haojiang in China. The concentrations of UCB lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation at 473, 844 CpG sites (CpGs) were assessed by Illumina 450 K BeadChip. The differential methylation of CpG sites from the microarray were further validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 125 CpGs mapped to 79 genes were differential methylation in the e-waste exposed group with higher concentrations of heavy metals in neonatal UCB. These genes mainly involve in multiple biological processes including calcium ion binding, cell adhesion, embryonic morphogenesis, as well as in signaling pathways related to NFkB activation, adherens junction, TGF beta and apoptosis. Among them, BAI1 and CTNNA2 (involving in neuron differentiation and development) were further verified to be hyper- and hypo-methylated, respectively, which were associated with maternal Pb exposure. These results suggest that maternal exposure to e-waste environmental heavy metals (particularly lead) during pregnancy are associated with peripheral blood differential DNA methylation in newborns, specifically the genes involving in brain neuron development.
PMID: 30763874 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Posted in Environ Res
Lyanne Kieneker: Sodium and potassium intake as determinants of cardiovascular and renal health Een hogere inname van kalium lijkt het risico op een …
Rob Meinds: Hirschsprung’s disease: early diagnosis and long-term outcomes Biopten die bij kinderen jonger dan negenendertig dagen genomen worden om …
Ye Yuan: MicroRNA expression and functional analysis in Hodgkin lymphoma Het klassiek Hodgkin Lymfoom (cHL) is een vorm van lymfeklierkanker waarin …
A Prospective Study of the Effect of Cochlear Implantation on Tinnitus.
Audiol Neurootol. 2019 Feb 08;23(6):356-363
Authors: Kloostra FJJ, Verbist J, Hofman R, Free RH, Arnold R, van Dijk P
Previous studies have shown diverse and sometimes even contrary results concerning the effect of cochlear implantation on tinnitus and the factors that can influence this effect. The aim of this prospective questionnaire study was to determine the effects of cochlear implantation on tinnitus and explore which factors can influence the effect of cochlear implantation on tinnitus. Forty-four of the patients implanted in our hospital returned 2 questionnaire packages, i.e., one before the cochlear implantation and one 6 months after implantation. Before implantation, 66% of the patients experienced tinnitus. This study shows that cochlear implantation could help to reduce tinnitus and the tinnitus handicap in at least 28% of the patients with preoperative tinnitus. In 72% of the patients the tinnitus remained after implantation. None of the patients developed tinnitus after implantation. A shorter duration of tinnitus prior to implantation, a more fluctuating type of tinnitus, a higher tinnitus handicap prior to implantation, and a round-window surgical approach might have a positive influence on the effect of cochlear implantation on tinnitus, but further research is necessary to confirm these findings.
PMID: 30739109 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Arthur Sas: (Genetic) epidemiology of inflammation, age-related pathology and longevity De levensloop van verschillende mensen en dieren is …
Wiejie Du: Novel heart failure biomarkers: Physiological studies to understand their complexity Biomarkers zijn kenmerkende stoffen die in weefsel …
Comparative study of photoswitchable zinc finger domain and AT-hook motif for light-controlled peptide-DNA binding.
Chemistry. 2019 Feb 08;:
Authors: Murawska GM, Poloni C, Simeth NA, Szymanski W, Feringa BL
DNA-peptide interactions are involved in key life processes, including DNA recognition, replication, transcription, repair, organization and modification. Development of tools that can influence DNA-peptide binding non-invasively with high spatiotemporal precision could aid in determining its role in cells and tissues. Here, we report on the design, synthesis and study of photocontrolled tools for sequence-specific small peptide-DNA major and minor groove interactions, shedding light on DNA binding by transcriptionally active peptides. In particular, photoswitchable moieties were implemented in the peptide backbone or turn region. In each case, DNA binding was affected by photochemical isomerization, as determined in fluorescent displacement assays on model DNA strands, which provides promising tools for DNA modulation.
PMID: 30735272 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Posted in Chemistry
Frank Klont: Mass spectrometry-based methods for protein biomarker quantification: On the road to clinical implementation Bepalingen van eiwitten in …
Wouter Johannes Heerink: CT-guided percutaneous interventions: improving needle placement accuracy in lung and liver procedures. Bij verschillende …
Yingying Cong: Molecular insights into viral respiratory infections Het ademhalingsstelsel maakt het mogelijk gas uit te wisselen tussen het externe …
Roel Kierkels: Automation and individualization of radiotherapy treatment planning in head and neck cancer In de nabije toekomst kunnen …
Mariana Ruiz Silva: Innate immune response to dengue and chikungunya virus (co-)infections Miljoenen mensen raken jaarlijks besmet met het …
Consider Role of Glutamatergic Habenula-projecting Globus Pallidus in OCD.
Pharmacopsychiatry. 2019 Feb 04;:
Authors: Loonen AJM, Ivanova SA
Recently, in a review article in this journal, Vlček and colleagues described the putative role played by the glutamatergic system in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and how this might explain the effects of certain treatments. They describe a neuroanatomical model, which includes a specific role of the amygdala-hippocampus complex (AHC) and would complete the classic cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) mechanism of OCD. The role of the AHC can perhaps be better understood when considering its ancient relationship to the rest of the forebrain of mammals. This leads to distinguishing between primary (lamprey-like), secondary (amphibian-like) and tertiary (mammal-like) parts of the forebrain including amygdaloid, ventral extrapyramidal and dorsal extrapyramidal systems, respectively. A specific role in OCD may be played by the habenula-projecting part of the pallidum, which evaluated the result of behaviour in human’s earliest vertebrate ancestors. The addition of these primary relationship to the authors’ description could be fruitful when planning the future research, as suggested by them.
PMID: 30716772 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Lucas Lintermans: Modulation of T and B cell function in granulomatosis with polyangiitis: Targeting Kv1.3 potassium channels In het bloed van …
Between vulnerability and resilience: A network analysis of fluctuations in cognitive risk and protective factors following remission from depression.
Behav Res Ther. 2019 Jan 23;116:1-9
Authors: Hoorelbeke K, Van den Bergh N, Wichers M, Koster EHW
Research exploring how cognitive risk- and protective factors relate following remission from internalizing disorders suggests a central role for resilience. However, it remains unclear what constitutes resilience in this context. Furthermore, previous studies have typically relied on cross-sectional data which do not allow to map the temporal dynamics of such relations. Using a seven-day experience sampling period in 85 remitted depressed patients, we examined the interplay between five transdiagnostic vulnerability- and protective factors in daily life. We present a temporal, contemporaneous, and a between-subjects network, providing an in-depth analysis of how these factors relate to daily life fluctuations in residual symptomatology. Furthermore, we test the role of positive affect as a main resilience factor. Resilience uniquely predicted all other factors over time (temporal network). Higher levels of resilience were related to less momentary use of rumination, more deployment of positive appraisal, and lower occurrence of residual symptoms (contemporaneous network). Participants scoring high on resilience mostly engaged in positive appraisal (between-subjects network). Similar structures were obtained when substituting self-reported resilience by positive affect. This highlights the importance of resilience, and in particular, positive affectivity, to cope with stressors following remission. This may be fostered by facilitating the use of positive appraisal.
PMID: 30710666 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Are sexual minority youth overrepresented in foster care, child welfare, and out-of-home placement? Findings from nationally representative data.
Child Abuse Negl. 2019 Jan 29;89:203-211
Authors: Fish JN, Baams L, Wojciak AS, Russell ST
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests that sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-sex attracted) youth are overrepresented in child welfare services. Yet, no study to date has been able to test this hypothesis with national data.
OBJECTIVE: Using a two-study design, we test whether sexual minority youth are overrepresented in child welfare, foster care, and out-of-home placement using nationally representative data from the United States.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Study 1 data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 14,154; Mean age = 15.4). Study 2 data are from wave three of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (n = 1309; Mean age = 15.0).
METHODS: For Study 1, we use adjusted logistic regression models to test differences in lifetime foster care involvement between sexual minority and heterosexual youth. In Study 2, we calculate a Disproportionality Representation Index (DRI) – a ratio of sample prevalence relative to the general population – to estimate whether sexual minority youth were overrepresented in child welfare and out-of-home care.
RESULTS: Study 1 results indicate that sexual minority youth are nearly 2.5 times as likely as heterosexual youth to experience foster care placement (aOR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.40, 4.21, p = .002). Results from Study 2 show that sexual minority youth were largely overrepresented in child welfare services (DRI = 1.95-2.48) and out-of-home placement (DRI = 3.69-4.68).
CONCLUSIONS: Findings are the first to demonstrate sexual minority youth’s overrepresentation in child welfare, foster care, and out-of-home placement using nationally representative data and emphasizes the need for focused research on sexual minority youth involved in the child welfare system.
PMID: 30708335 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Adenosine kinase and cardiovascular fetal programming in gestational diabetes mellitus.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2019 Jan 27;:
Authors: Silva L, Plösch T, Toledo F, Faas MM, Sobrevia L
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a detrimental condition for human pregnancy associated with endothelial dysfunction and endothelial inflammation in the fetoplacental vasculature and leads to increased cardio-metabolic risk in the offspring. In the fetoplacental vasculature, GDM is associated with altered adenosine metabolism. Adenosine is an important vasoactive molecule and is an intermediary and final product of transmethylation reactions in the cell. Adenosine kinase is the major regulator of adenosine levels. Disruption of this enzyme is associated with alterations in methylation-dependent gene expression regulation mechanisms, which are associated with the fetal programming phenomenon. Here we propose that cellular and molecular alterations associated with GDM can dysregulate adenosine kinase leading to fetal programming in the fetoplacental vasculature. This can contribute to the cardio-metabolic long-term consequences observed in offspring after exposure to GDM.
PMID: 30699363 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]