Free-viewing multi-stimulus eye tracking task to index attention bias for alcohol versus soda cues: Satisfactory reliability and criterion validity.

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Free-viewing multi-stimulus eye tracking task to index attention bias for alcohol versus soda cues: Satisfactory reliability and criterion validity.

Addict Behav. 2019 Sep 05;100:106117

Authors: Soleymani A, Ivanov Y, Mathot S, de Jong PJ

Abstract
Cognitive -motivational models point to attention bias (AB) as an important factor in the persistence of problematic drinking behavior. Unfortunately, the measures that have been used to examine AB in addiction typically showed poor psychometric properties. To bring research on AB a critical step further it would be crucial to develop tasks with acceptable reliability and construct validity. Recently, Lazarov and colleagues (2016) developed a multi-stimulus free-viewing task (participants were free to look at any part of the screen and there was no secondary task involved) that showed excellent psychometric properties in the context of social anxiety as well as depression. We, therefore, adapted this task and examined its psychometric quality within the context of alcohol use. Participants with varying levels of alcohol use (N = 100) were presented with 54 matrices each containing 8 alcoholic and 8 non-alcoholic drinks. Each matrix was presented for 6 s. First fixation (100 ms) location and latency and total dwell time were assessed for alcohol and soda pictures. Assessment of AB, craving, and alcohol use (problems) was repeated after 3-8 days. Specifically, the dwell-time based AB-measure showed excellent internal reliability and considerable stability. Supporting the validity of the current AB-measures, it was found that participants with higher scores on craving and alcohol problems (i) dwelt longer on alcohol stimuli, and (ii) more often showed a first fixation on alcohol, whereas (iii) stronger craving was associated with shorter latency of first alcohol fixations. The AB-measure showed promising psychometric properties. Thus, this free-viewing eye-tracking task seems a welcome new tool for being used in future research on AB in addiction.

PMID: 31522132 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Interacties tussen moleculaire chaperonnes in de cel cruciaal voor opruimen van eiwitklonten

Despoina Serlidaki: Hsp70 machinery vs protein aggregation: The role of chaperones in cellular protein homeostasis​ De cellen in ons lichaam hebben …

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Gezondheid van nakomelingen van subfertiele paren

​Derk Kuiper: Health of offspring of subfertile couples Kuiper richtte zich in zijn proefschrift op de gezondheid van nakomelingen van subfertiele …

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Gebruik van real-world bewijs in farmaco-economische analyse

Yunyu Huang: Use of real-world evidence in pharmacoeconomic analysis: illustrations in The Netherlands and China ​Huang beoordeelde in zijn …

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Emission drivers of cities at different industrialization phases in China.

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Emission drivers of cities at different industrialization phases in China.

J Environ Manage. 2019 Sep 09;250:109494

Authors: Wang R, Zheng X, Wang H, Shan Y

Abstract
As cities are the center of human activity and the basic unit of policy design, they have become the focus of carbon dioxide reduction, especially metropolitan areas that are high energy consumers and carbon dioxide emitters in countries such as China. The fact cities differ in their levels of development and stages of industrialization points to the need for tailor-made low-carbon policies. This study is the first to consider cities’ different phases of industrialization when analyzing city-level emission patterns and drivers, as well as the decoupling statuses between economic growth and their emission levels in China. The results of 15 representative cities at different phases of industrialization show that various decoupling statuses, driving factors and decoupling efforts exist among cities, and that heterogeneity among these factors also exists among cities at the same industrialization phase. For further decomposition, energy intensity contributed the most to emissions reduction during the period 2005 to 2010, especially for cities with more heavy manufacturing industries, whereas industrial structure was a stronger negative emission driver during the period 2010 to 2015. Based on those findings, we suggest putting into practice a diversified carbon-mitigation policy portfolio according to each city’s industrialization phase rather than a single policy that focuses on one specific driving factor. This paper sets an example on emissions-reduction experience for other cities undergoing different industrialization phases in China; it also sheds light on policy initiatives that could be applied to other cities around the world.

PMID: 31514002 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Development of atypical parental behavior during an inpatient family preservation intervention program.

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Development of atypical parental behavior during an inpatient family preservation intervention program.

Infant Ment Health J. 2019 Sep 11;:

Authors: Vischer AWK, Post WJ, Grietens H, Knorth EJ, Bronfman E

Abstract
Since failed reunification is a detrimental outcome for children, particularly infants and toddlers, the aim of this study was to gain insight into support to families in multiple-problem situations to help them achieve sustainable good-enough parenting. Therefore, we examined outcomes of an assessment-based inpatient family preservation program. We prepared a thorough target-population description (n = 70) using file analysis. Next, we examined atypical parental behavior during the intervention using the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification with a repeated measures design (n = 30). The family files revealed a great number of issues at the family, parent, and child levels, such as practical matters, problems in parent functioning and between parents, and difficulties in the broader environment. We found a significant decline in three dimensions of atypical parental behavior over time. This program has great potential in supporting vulnerable families in their pursuit of family preservation.

PMID: 31508841 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Medical student views of and responses to expectations of professionalism.

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Medical student views of and responses to expectations of professionalism.

Med Educ. 2019 Oct;53(10):1025-1036

Authors: Stubbing EA, Helmich E, Cleland J

Abstract
CONTEXT: To earn society’s trust, medical students must develop professional values and behaviours via a transformative process, from lay person to doctor. Yet students are expected to epitomise the values and behaviours of a doctor from the outset of medical school, leading them to feel ‘judged all the time’ (in terms of their professionalism). Our aim, therefore, is to extend knowledge exploring the expectations communicated to and perceived by medical students and to provide a conceptually framed understanding of students’ associated emotional tensions.
METHODS: We used a qualitative exploratory case study methodology within a constructivist paradigm to explore the messages communicated about professionalism and students’ perceived expectations of professionalism in one medical school. Data were collected in the form of: (i) regulatory and medical school documents, and (ii) focus groups with 23 participants in their first 2 years at medical school. We used thematic analysis for data interpretation and two theoretical lenses, Amalberti et al.’s framework of system migration for health care and Sinclair’s adaptation of Goffman’s dramaturgical theory, to critically analyse the results.
RESULTS: We found messages and perceived expectations of knowledge and competence, and the need to ensure trust. We also identified that the expectations of patients, doctors, society, family and friends are just as, if not more, influential than policy and regulatory expectations for early years’ medical students. Moreover, we found tensions, with students feeling that the expectations of them from others were unrealistic for their level of training. With this came a sense of pressure to meet expectations that participants responded to by acting as if already competent.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that external forces (expectations) drive early years’ students to act as if competent. Although this is part of student identity formation it could also have implications for patient safety and therefore necessitates recognition and support from educators.

PMID: 31509286 [PubMed – in process]

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‘He usually has what we call normal fevers’: Cultural perspectives on healthy child growth in rural Southeastern Tanzania: An ethnographic enquiry.

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‘He usually has what we call normal fevers’: Cultural perspectives on healthy child growth in rural Southeastern Tanzania: An ethnographic enquiry.

PLoS One. 2019;14(9):e0222231

Authors: Mchome Z, Bailey A, Darak S, Kessy F, Haisma H

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: While parents’ construction of and actions around child growth are embedded in their cultural framework, the discourse on child growth monitoring (CGM) has been using indicators grounded in the biomedical model. We believe that for CGM to be effective, it should also incorporate other relevant socio-cultural constructs. To contribute to the further development of CGM to ensure that it reflects the local context, we report on the cultural conceptualization of healthy child growth in rural Tanzania. Specifically, we examine how caregivers describe and recognize healthy growth in young children, and the meanings they attach to these cultural markers of healthy growth.
METHODS: Caregivers of under-five children, including mothers, fathers, elderly women, and community health workers, were recruited from a rural community in Kilosa District, Southeastern Tanzania. Using an ethnographic approach and the cultural schemas theory, data for the study were collected through 19 focus group discussions, 30 in-depth interviews, and five key informant interviews. Both inductive and deductive approaches were used in the data analysis.
RESULTS: Participants reported using multiple markers for ascertaining healthy growth. These include ‘being bonge’ (chubby), ‘being free of illness’, ‘eating well’, ‘growing in height’, as well as ‘having good kilos’ (weight). Despite the integration of some biomedical concepts into the local conceptualization of growth, the meanings attached to these concepts are largely rooted in the participants’ cultural framework. For instance, a child’s weight is ascribed to the parents’ adherence to postpartum sex taboos and to the nature of a child’s bones. The study noted conceptual differences between the meanings attached to height from a biomedical and a local perspective. Whereas from a biomedical perspective the height increment is considered an outcome of growth, the participants did not see height as linked to nutrition, and did not believe that they have control over their child’s height.
CONCLUSIONS: To provide context-sensitive advice to mothers during CGM appointments, health workers should use a tool that takes into account the mothers’ constructs derived from their cultural framework of healthy growth. The use of this approach should facilitate communication between health professionals and caregivers during CGM activities, increase the uptake and utilization of CGM services, and, eventually, contribute to reduced levels of childhood malnutrition in the community.

PMID: 31509582 [PubMed – in process]

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Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Diabetic Nephropathy.

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Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Diabetic Nephropathy.

N Engl J Med. 2019 Sep 12;381(11):1089

Authors: Post A, Eisenga MF, Bakker SJL

PMID: 31509684 [PubMed – in process]

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Multidisciplinaire aanpak verbetert diagnose en behandeling van bewegingsstoornis bij jonge patiënten

​Wieke Eggink: Moving forward in childhood-onset movement disorders: A multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and care Patiënten met een …

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Nieuwe aanknopingspunten voor diagnose en behandeling van darmfibrose bij de ziekte van Crohn

Tobias van Haaften: Biomarkers, models and mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis​ Patiënten met de ziekte van Crohn hebben een chronische darmontsteking, …

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B-cellen in het ziekteproces van de auto-immuunziekte granulomatose met polyangiitis (GPA)

​Anouk von Borstel: B cells in ANCA-associated vasculitides: From pathogenic players to biomarkers Granulomatose met polyangiitis (GPA) is een …

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Meer inzicht in het biologisch gedrag van het diffuus grootcellig B-cel lymfoom (DLBCL)

Lotte van der Meeren: Unravelling the proteome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Differences in cell of origin and HLA loss​ Van der Meeren richtte …

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ontwikkeling van verborgen gehoorverlies

​Daniël Reijntjes: Molecular composition and function of the spiral ganglion neuron peripheral synapse in mice Reijntjes heeft in dit proefschrift op …

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Postnatal Cerebral Hyperoxia Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity.

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Postnatal Cerebral Hyperoxia Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity.

Neonatology. 2019 Sep 05;:1-7

Authors: Richter AE, Bos AF, Huiskamp EA, Kooi EMW

Abstract
BACKGROUND: High arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but difficult to avoid.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between severe ROP and a burden of cerebral and arterial hyperoxia.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 225 preterm infants born ≤30 weeks’ gestation. The cerebral oxygen saturation (rcSO2) and SaO2 were measured within the first 96 h after birth. We determined the burden of both cerebral and arterial hyperoxia, which was defined as the percentage of time spent at saturation thresholds exceeding 85 and 90%, respectively. Their association with severe ROP (prethreshold disease type 1) was tested using logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: Median gestational age (GA) was 28.0 weeks (interquartile range 26.7-29.0) and mean birth weight 1,032 g (±281 SD). Eight infants developed severe ROP. Infants with severe ROP spent more time at cerebral hyperoxic levels than infants without severe ROP (medians 30 vs. 16%). Adjusted for GA, for every 10% increase in burden of cerebral hyperoxia, the OR for developing ROP was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09 – 2.06, p = 0.013). A burden of arterial hyperoxia was not associated with ROP. Infants with severe ROP experienced even less arterial hyperoxia, although not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral hyperoxia may be a better early predictor of severe ROP than arterial hyperoxia. Moreover, under strict oxygen management, cerebral hyperoxia in these infants may result from cerebral immaturity rather than a high SaO2. Whether reducing cerebral hyperoxia is feasible and might prevent ROP needs to be further examined.

PMID: 31487704 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Kijkoperatie bij lymfeklieruitzaaiingen van melanoom vermindert ernstige complicaties

​Marloes Faut: Evolving treatment of locoregional metastatic melanoma Bij patiënten met een melanoom – een vorm van huidkanker – kijken artsen of de …

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Het belang van moleculaire diagnose van virale infecties na niertransplantatie

​Lilli Rurenga-Gard: Importance of molecular diagnostic of viral infections in renal transplant recipients Voor mensen met een terminale nierziekte …

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Meerdere aspecten van contactallergie: immunologie, plakproef-methodologie en epidemiologie

​Daan Dittmar: Multiple Aspects of Contact Allergy: Immunology, patch test methodology and epidemiology Dittmar focuste in zijn proefschrift op …

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Nieuwe CT-technieken voor de diagnose en behandeling van hartziekten

​Marly van Assen: Quantitative cardiac dual source CT; from morphology to function Hart- en vaatziekten zijn een van de belangrijkste doodsoorzaken …

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A Molecular Cytogenetic Map of Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis).

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A Molecular Cytogenetic Map of Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis).

Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2019 Aug 31;:

Authors: Yang Z, Li X, Liao H, Hu L, Peng C, Wang S, Huang X, Bao Z

Abstract
To consolidate the genetic, physical, and cytogenetic maps of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), we constructed a molecular cytogenetic map by localizing 84 fosmid clones that contain different SNP markers from 19 linkage groups (LGs) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Among these 84 SNP-anchored clones, 56 clones produced specific and stable signals on one pair of chromosomes. Dual-color FISH assigned 19 LGs to their corresponding chromosomes with 38 SNP-anchored clones as probes. Among these 19 LGs, 17 LGs were assigned to their corresponding one pair of chromosomes, while two clones containing SNPs from LG10 and LG19 were located on two different pairs of chromosomes separately. The orientation of 7 LGs was corrected according to the chromosome location of SNPs within the same LG. In addition, a probe panel of SNP-anchored clones was developed to identify each chromosome of P. yessoensis. The molecular cytogenetic map will facilitate molecular breeding in scallop and enable comparative studies on chromosome evolution of bivalve mollusk.

PMID: 31473865 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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