Acantholysis in pemphigus

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START-ing Risk Assessment and Shared Care Planning in Out-patient Forensic Psychiatry.

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Functioning of Young Individuals with Upper Limb Reduction Deficiencies

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Singlehood and partnerships in healthy people and childhood cancer survivors

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Relationships between perioperative physical activity behaviour and urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: A longitudinal observational study

Background:
Urinary incontinence is a common sequela of radical prostatectomy. Various .intra- and perioperative strategies have been adopted to decrease the incidence and severity of post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI). Previous studies have demonstrated a ‘continence- protective’ effect of physical activity and more recently,
‘ptehabilitation’ has proved to reduce postoperative recovery time in other fields of medicine. The advent of robotic
assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) is claimed to reduce the time to regain continence and return to baseline physical functioning.
Objectives:
We aimed to determine the influence of preoperative physical activity behaviour on PPUI and the effect of type of surgical procedure (RALP versus open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP)) on PPUI and postoperative physical activity behaviour. Secondly, we aimed to assess correlations between objective and patient-reported measures for PPUI and physical activity behaviour.
Methods:
A total of 33 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RALP or RPP) and receiving physiotherapist guided perioperative pelvic floor muscle training were included. Physical activity behaviour was assessed with a portable activity monitor, the SenseWear Armband (SWA) and with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) at baseline, in the week preceding surgery and in week 3 and week 6 postoperative. PPUI was assessed with 1-hour and 24-hour pad
tests and with the patient-reported International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaires (IClQs) at week 3 and
week 6 postoperative. Analyses of variance and correlation techniques were used with a level of significance set at p <
0.05.
Results:
PPUI decreased significantly between week 3 and week 6 postoperative as measured with objective and patientreported
measurements (p preoperative physical activity levels. A significant interaction effect was demonstrated for PPUI assessed with the 24-
hour pad test between type of surgical procedure and time of assessment (p postoperative physical activity behaviour between patients that underwent RALP versus RRP. Moderate to very strong
correlations were found between objective and patient-reported measures fot PPUI and none to moderate correlations
for different measures of physical activity behaviour.
Conclusion:
Higher preoperative physical activity levels appeared to make no significant contribution to regaining continence early after radical prostatectomy. RALP hastens the recovery of early PPUI compared to RRP. For the assessment of PPUI, the ICIQs are reliable questionnaires. However, to assess physical activity behaviour, we
recommend the use of an objective physical activity monitor instead of questionnaires.

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The functional role of asymmetrical lateral trunk sway in prosthetic walkers : Generation of push off work and balance control as explanations

Asymmetrical lateral trunk sway is observed in prosthetic walkers and can be explained by either loss of balance control or generation of push off work. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight in the functional role of asymmetrical lateral trunk sway, which was studied by inducing
asymmetrical lateral trunk sway in healthy subjects by means of different orthoses. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at two cadences, two velocities and with four orthoses; no restrictions of ankle
movements, restricted inversion and eversion, restricted plantarflexion and dorsiflexion and restrictions of all ankle movements. Maximal trunk angle was higher when walking at a lower
cadence compared to walking at a high cadence for both the impaired and unimpaired side. For walking at a high velocity, maximal trunk angle was higher than when walking at a low velocity for
both the impaired and unimpaired side. When plantarflexion and dorsiflexion were restricted, maximal trunk angle was higher when walking at a lower velocity, compared to no ankle movements restricted on the impaired side. When walking at higher velocity, maximal trunk angle was higher
when plantarflexion and dorsiflexion were restricted, compared to no ankle movements restricted on the impaired side. Stance time was longer at the low velocity compared to walking at a high velocity for both the unimpaired and impaired side. On the unimpaired side the stance time was
longer for the lower cadence than when walking at a higher cadence. The results of this study do not prove that lateral trunk sway is needed for balance. The results do indicate that lateral trunk sway
could be used to generate power for push off.

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The age-related regulation of sensorimotor integration in human postural control

Over one third of the individuals over age 65 fall each year. An age-related decline in the ability to integrate sensory and motor information may underlay the evolving impairment of postural control.
The purpose of this study was to examine the age-related regulation of sensorimotor integration in human postural control and the age-related intracortical excitability. Eleven young (22.6 ± 1.0 yr) and thirteen older adults (67.9 ± 4.7 yr) participated in this study. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
(TMS) was used to determine the age-related changes in corticospinal- and cortical excitability during four different standing conditions (standing on a rigid surface with eyes open (RP-EO) and eyes
closed (RP-EC), standing on foam with eyes open (FS-EO) and eyes closed (FS-EC)). A significant increase in corticospinal- (p < 0.001) and decrease in cortical excitability (p = 0.042) was found during the different standing conditions. Besides, there was less cortical inhibition in the older compared to
the young participants (p < 0.001). This may be caused by an increase in cortical activation in the older participants. The possibility exists that such age-related changes mediate in part the impaired
control of posture in old adults. In conclusion, the present study suggests that there is a trend of decreased intracortical inhibition in young and older adults when sensory (visual- and proprioceptive) information is manipulated during standing.

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Stress and recovery of runners: how are physiological and psychosocial stress and recovery related?

Kentta and Hassmen (1998) introduced a model to describe the process of training.
They stated that there needs to be a balance between physiological stress and recovery and between psychosocial stress and recovery in order to improve performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between physiological and psychosocial stress and recovery. In order to do this, 24 elite middle- and long distance runners were monitored during 21 weeks of regular training. The athletes filled in a daily training log in which duration, Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Total Quality of Recovery (TQR) scores of each training session were collected to determine physiological stress and recovery. The
RESTQ-Sport was administered on a weekly basis to determine psychosocial stress and
recovery.
No relationship was found between physiological stress and physiological recovery.
An increase in physiological stress was related to an increase in sport-specific stress and recovery but no relationship was found with total stress and total recovery. An increase in physiological recovery was related to an increase in psychosocial recovery and a decrease in
psychosocial stress. The relationships found were in most cases low to moderate and differ
per individual. In order to monitor all aspects of the stress recovery balance on an individual level, different physiological and psychosocial measures should be used.

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Type 2 diabetes seems not to be a risk factor for the carpal tunnel syndrome: a case control study

Steven H Hendriks, Peter R van Dijk, Klaas H Groenier, Peter Houpt, Henk JG Bilo, Nanne Kleefstra
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014, 15:346 (14 October 2014)

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Observational study to characterise 24-hour COPD symptoms and their relationship with patient-reported outcomes: results from the ASSESS study

Marc Miravitlles, Heinrich Worth, Juan José Soler-Cataluña, David Price, Fernando de Benedetto, Nicolas Roche, Nina Skavlan Godtfredsen, Thys van der Molen, Claes-Goran Löfdahl, Laura Padullés, Anna Ribera
Respiratory Research 2014, 15:122 (21 October 2014)

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Speed-accuracy tradeoff in aimed ball kicks: a Fitts’ law perspective

The lawfulness of the speed-accuracy tradeoff has been proven in different fields of research. Fitts’ law is the most generally known model for the speed-accuracy tradeoff. The penalty kick is often
used to explain the model of speed-accuracy tradeoff. Nevertheless, Fitts’ law has never been validated for aimed ball kicks, such as the penalty kick. In the current study the speed-accuracy tradeoff was investigated for aimed ball kicks, from a Fitt’s law perspective. In addition an anxiety
manipulation was conducted, in order to see if this would affect the speed-accuracy tradeoff. 9 amateur football players (aged 22 ± 1.8 years) participated in the experiment. Participants had to perform 84 aimed ball kicks, directed at three different targets (Target widths = 1,50m, 0,75m and
0.375m). Ball velocity and accuracy data were collected using video analysis. Furthermore, the participants were given verbal instruction; manipulate the participants in either an approach or
avoidance behavioral state. MRF-3 and CSAI-2R questionnaires were used to acquire the level of anxiety. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences in ball velocity for the three different target widths (p < 0.05), thereby validating Fitts' law for aimed ball kicks. No significant
differences were found for accuracy (p > 0.05). Paired samples t-test of the outcome variables of the
questionnaires revealed no difference between different verbal instructional manipulations (p’s >
0.05). Results confirmed the Fitts’ law for aimed ball kicks. Findings indicated that players should aim
at large targets, thereby increasing their ball velocity, since the accuracy is not negatively affect by
the increase in target width.
Keywords: Fitts’ law, aimed ball kick, speed-accuracy tradeoff, penalty kick

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Physical fitness, sports participation and perceived competence in children with learning disabilities

The aims of this study were to (1) compare components of physical fitness (i.e. aerobic fitness and muscular strength) and sports participation of children with learning disabilities (LD) and typically developing (TD) children, (2) study the development of physical fitness in children with LD over a 4 year period and (3) examine the relation between sports participation and
perceived physical competence with physical fitness in children with LD.
Forty-six children with LD (31 boys, 15 girls, age of enrolment 8-10 year, IQ range=75-109) were included in the longitudinal study and performed the Eurofit test (10-by-5 m shuttle run (SR), 20m SR, standing broad jump (SBJ), sit-ups (SU) and hand grip strength (HGS)) annually for 4 consecutive years. In a cross-sectional study physical fitness and sports participation of a subsample of 3 8 children with LD was compared with age and gender matched TD children. The subsample of children with LD also filled out the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance.
The results showed that children with LD performed significantly worse on aerobic fitness and muscular strength test items and participated less in organised sports (55.6%) than TD children (89 .5% ). There was a close to linear development in performance on 1 0-by-5 m SR and SU in children with LD. HGS significantly increased from age 8 to 9 and showed a clear acceleration from age 10 to 11. Performance on SBJ was relatively stable and only significantly itnproved from age 9 to 10. Performance on 20m SR significantly increased from age 8 to 9. thereafter performance remained stable. Sports participation was not associated with physical fitness in children with LD. A moderate and positive association was
found between perceived physical ompetence and items of muscular strength, but no relation was found with aerobic fitness.
The findings of this study highlight the importance of stimulating the development of aerobic fitness and muscular strength in children with LD. Further research is needed to investigate the role of organised sports participation and perceived con1petence in interventions aimed at increasing the developtnent of physical fitness in children with LD.

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Cardiovascular prostheses in congenital heart disease

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An economic assessment of embryo diagnostics (Dx) – the costs of introducing non-invasive embryo diagnostics into IVF standard treatment practices

Hans-Joerg Fugel, Mark Connolly, Mark Nuijten
BMC Health Services Research 2014, 14:482 (9 October 2014)

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Psychological states and physical fates : studying the role of psychosocial stress in the etiology of cardiovascular disease: a nomotheric versus an idiographic approach

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Salivary gland stem cells

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Predictors of in-hospital mortality after mitral valve surgery for post-myocardial infarction papillary muscle rupture

Wobbe Bouma, Inez J Wijdh-den Hamer, Bart M Koene, Michiel Kuijpers, Ehsan Natour, Michiel E Erasmus, Iwan CC van der Horst, Joseph H Gorman III, Robert C Gorman, Massimo A Mariani
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2014, 9:171 (18 October 2014)

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Sports participation and physical disabilities

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Interhospital transport of the critically ill patient

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The weight of subclinical vascular disease & neuroticism in late-life depression

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