Model informed quantification of the feed-forward stimulation of growth hormone by growth hormone releasing hormone.
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020 Feb 22;:
Authors: van Esdonk MJ, Burggraaf J, van der Graaf PH, Stevens J
AIMS: Growth hormone (GH) secretion is pulsatile and secretion varies highly between individuals. To understand and ultimately predict GH secretion, it is important to first delineate and quantify the interaction and variability in the biological processes underlying stimulated GH secretion. This study reports on the development of a population non-linear mixed effects model for GH stimulation, incorporating individual GH kinetics and the stimulation of GH by GH releasing hormone (GHRH).
METHODS: Literature data on the systemic circulation, the median eminence, and the anterior pituitary were included as system parameters in the model. Population parameters were estimated on data from 8 healthy normal weight and 16 obese women who received a 33 μg recombinant human GH dose. The next day, a bolus injection of 100 μg GHRH was given to stimulate GH secretion.
RESULTS: The GH kinetics were best described with the addition of 2 distribution compartments with a bodyweight dependent clearance (increasing linearly from 24.7 L/h for a 60 kg subject to 32.1 L/h for a 100 kg subject). The model described the data adequately with high parameter precision and significant inter-individual variability on the GH clearance and distribution volume. Additionally, high variability in the amount of secreted GH, driven by GHRH receptor activation, was identified (coefficient of variation = 90%).
CONCLUSIONS: The stimulation of GH by GHRH was quantified and significant inter-individual variability was identified on multiple parameters. This model sets the stage for further development of by inclusion of additional physiological components to quantify GH secretion in humans.
PMID: 32087619 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Mycotic Abdominal Aortic and Iliac Aneurysm Caused by Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Bacteremia.
Aorta (Stamford). 2020 Feb 19;:
Authors: Madani A, Zeebregts CJ, Lamprou A, Tielliu IFJ
This report describes a case of a taxidermist who presented with sepsis and excruciating back pain a few weeks after contact with a deceased horse. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SESZ) was isolated from patient’s blood and two isolated mycotic aneurysms were found. The first was located in the distal abdominal aorta and the second in the right common iliac artery. Treatment consisted of penicillin administration for 6 weeks and surgical debridement of the infected tissue combined with autologous vein reconstruction. The patient was infection-free without complaints 1 year after discharge and the venous reconstruction was patent. Reports in literature of bacteremia with SESZ leading to the development of mycotic aneurysms are very scarce and show that prognosis is generally unfavorable.
PMID: 32074645 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Glucose Exposure in Peritoneal Dialysis Is a Significant Factor Predicting Peritonitis.
Am J Nephrol. 2020 Feb 18;:1-7
Authors: Uiterwijk H, Franssen CFM, Kuipers J, Westerhuis R, Nauta FL
INTRODUCTION: Loss of residual renal function (RRF) as well as high peritoneal glucose exposure are associated with increased peritonitis frequency in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Our objective was to investigate the contribution of RRF and peritoneal glucose exposure to peritonitis in PD patients.
METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, 105 incident end-stage renal disease patients that started PD between January 2006 and 2015 were studied. Follow-up was 5 years with censoring at death or switch to another treatment modality. Cox regression models were used to calculate the association between glucose exposure, RRF, and peritonitis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to examine the difference in occurrence of peritonitis between patients with high and low glucose exposure and between those with and without residual diuresis.
RESULTS: One hundred and five patients were followed for a mean of 23 months. Fifty-one patients developed a peritonitis. Cox regression models at 6 months showed that glucose exposure and not residual diuresis significantly predicted PD peritonitis. Kaplan-Meier analysis after 6 months of follow-up showed that time to first PD peritonitis was significantly longer in the low glucose exposure group. Similarly, patients with RRF had a significantly longer interval to first peritonitis compared to patients without RRF.
CONCLUSION: A higher exposure to glucose rather than loss of RRF is associated with an increased risk of peritonitis. This confirms the detrimental effects of glycemic harm to the peritoneal host defense on invading microorganisms and argues for the use of the lowest PD glucose concentrations possible.
PMID: 32069459 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Posted in Am J Nephrol
Luis Silva Lagos: Gestational diabetes mellitus and fetoplacental vasculature alterations: Exploring the role of adenosine kinase in endothelial …
Johan van Rooijen: Optimizing systemic therapy in metastatic breast cancer. Implementation in daily practice and exploration of new drug targets …
Roy Reints: On the design and evaluation of adjustable footwear for the prevention of diabetic foot ulcers Wereldwijd zijn er ruim 422 miljoen …
Oyuntugs Byambasukh: Physical activity and cardiometabolic health. Focus on domain-specific associations of physical activity over the life course …
Identifying individual polar bears at safe distances: A test with captive animals.
PLoS One. 2020;15(2):e0228991
Authors: Prop J, Staverløkk A, Moe B
The need to recognise individuals in population and behavioural studies has stimulated the development of various identification methods. A commonly used method is to employ natural markers to distinguish individuals. In particular, the automated processing of photographs of study animals has gained interest due to the speed of processing and the ability to handle a high volume of records. However, automated processing requires high-quality photographs, which means that they need to be taken from a specific angle or at close distances. Polar bears Ursus maritimus, for example, may be identified by automated analysis of whisker spot patterns. However, to obtain photographs of adequate quality, the animals need to be closer than is usually possible without risk to animal or observer. In this study we tested the accuracy of an alternative method to identify polar bears at further distances. This method is based on distinguishing a set of physiognomic characteristics, which can be recognised from photographs taken in the field at distances of up to 400 m. During five trials, sets of photographs of 15 polar bears from six zoos, with each individual bear portrayed on different dates, were presented for identification to ten test observers. Among observers the repeatability of the assessments was 0.68 (SE 0.011). Observers with previous training in photogrammetric techniques performed better than observers without training. Experience with observing polar bears in the wild did not improve skills to identify individuals on photographs. Among the observers with photogrammetric experience, the rate of erroneous assessment was on average 0.13 (SE 0.020). For the inexperienced group this was 0.72 (SE 0.018). Error rates obtained with automated whisker spot analysis were intermediate (0.26-0.58). We suggest that wildlife studies will benefit from applying several identification techniques to collect data under different conditions.
PMID: 32053691 [PubMed – in process]
Posted in PLoS One
Ella Bekhuis: A body-mind map. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of the relation between somatic, depressive and anxiety symptomatology Mensen …
Veera van Wijnen: Patterns of orthostatic hypotension and the evaluation of syncope Voor haar proefschrift deed Van Wijnen onderzoek naar de …
Liselotte Boerman: Long-term cardiovascular effects of breast cancer treatment Boerman had als doel van dit proefschrift de prevalentie van en het …
Challenges of neuropathic pain: focus on diabetic neuropathy.
J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2020 Feb 08;:
Authors: Rosenberger DC, Blechschmidt V, Timmerman H, Wolff A, Treede RD
Neuropathic pain is a frequent condition caused by a lesion or disease of the central or peripheral somatosensory nervous system. A frequent cause of peripheral neuropathic pain is diabetic neuropathy. Its complex pathophysiology is not yet fully elucidated, which contributes to underassessment and undertreatment. A mechanism-based treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy is challenging but phenotype-based stratification might be a way to develop individualized therapeutic concepts. Our goal is to review current knowledge of the pathophysiology of peripheral neuropathic pain, particularly painful diabetic neuropathy. We discuss state-of-the-art clinical assessment, validity of diagnostic and screening tools, and recommendations for the management of diabetic neuropathic pain including approaches towards personalized pain management. We also propose a research agenda for translational research including patient stratification for clinical trials and improved preclinical models in relation to current knowledge of underlying mechanisms.
PMID: 32036431 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Petra Havinga: Breaking the cycle? Intergenerational transmission of depression/anxiety and opportunities for intervention Depressies en …
Jolien Admiraal: Supporting cancer patients in managing distress. New insights in the use of the Distress Thermometer & Problem List and effects of …
Kiran van der Laan: Fluorescent nanodiamonds as free radical sensors in aging yeast cells. A Baker’s yeast response to small diamonds with great …
Functional Capacity Evaluation Research: Report from the Fourth International Functional Capacity Evaluation Research Meeting.
J Occup Rehabil. 2020 Feb 07;:
Authors: Edelaar MJA, Oesch PR, Gross DP, James CL, Reneman MF
Purpose To summarize progress of functional capacity evaluation (FCE) research based on the proceedings of the Fourth International FCE Research Conference held in Switzerland on September 21 and 22, 2018. Methods A scientific committee identified key issues in FCE research and developed the program including key note presentations, a call for abstracts, and round table discussions over 2 days. Highlights of the presentations and discussions are summarized in this article. Results Seventy-nine participants from 11 countries attended the conference where 10 keynote lectures and 21 abstracts were presented. There was also an open discussion regarding the need for an International FCE clinical practice guideline (CPG), methods for developing such a guideline, and practical next steps. Full program details and abstracts from this Fourth International FCE Research Conference are available from https://www.sar-reha.ch/interessengemeinschaften/ig-ergonomie.html. Conclusions Researchers and clinicians continue to increase the body of knowledge in the FCE field. A major finding of this conference is the diversity across the different FCE protocols and research groups as well as of the different uses of FCE across cultural and social economic systems. Next steps will include exploring the development of an international, interdisciplinary, evidence-based FCE clinical practice guideline by a committee formed at the conference.
PMID: 32034571 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Associations between Ethnic Minority Status and Popularity in Adolescence: the role of Ethnic Classroom Composition and Aggression.
J Youth Adolesc. 2020 Feb 07;:
Authors: Stevens GWJM, Veldkamp C, Harakeh Z, Laninga-Wijnen L
Although there are theoretical reasons to expect an association between ethnic minority status and popularity, research on this topic is scarce. Therefore, this association was investigated including the moderating role of the ethnic classroom composition and the mediating role of aggression. Data from the longitudinal Dutch SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) project were used among first-year students (comparable to 5th grade) (N = 1134, Nclassrooms = 51, M = 12.5 years, 137 non-Western ethnic minority students). Popularity and aggression were assessed with peer nominations. Multi-level Structural Equation Models showed that ethnic minority status was indirectly associated with higher popularity, through higher aggression. Moreover, with increasing numbers of ethnic minority students in the classroom, popularity levels of both ethnic majority and ethnic minority students decreased. Only when differences in aggression between ethnic minority and majority students were included in the analyses, while the ethnic classroom composition was not included, lower popularity levels were found for ethnic minority than ethnic majority students. Scientific and practical implications of this study were addressed in the discussion.
PMID: 32034631 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
The initiation of Dutch newly qualified hospital-based midwives in practice, a qualitative study.
Midwifery. 2020 Jan 28;83:102648
Authors: Kool LE, Schellevis FG, Jaarsma DADC, Feijen-De Jong EI
In the Netherlands, a percentage of newly qualified midwives start work in maternity care as a hospital-based midwife, although prepared particularly for working autonomously in the community.
AIM: This study aimed to explore newly qualified Dutch midwives’ perceptions of their job demands and resources during their initiation to hospital-based practice.
DESIGN: We conducted a qualitative study with semi structured interviews using the Job Demands-Resources model as theoretical framework.
METHODS: Twenty-one newly qualified midwives working as hospital-based midwives in the Netherlands were interviewed individually between January and July 2018. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis.
FINDINGS: High workload, becoming a team member, learning additional medical procedures and job insecurity were perceived demands. Participants experienced the variety of the work, the teamwork, social support, working with women, and employment conditions as job resources. Openness for new experiences, sociability, calmness and accuracy were experienced as personal resources, and perfectionism, self-criticism, and fear of failure as personal demands.
CONCLUSION: Initiation to hospital-based practice requires from newly qualified midwives adaptation to new tasks: working with women in medium and high-risk care, managing tasks, as well as often receiving training in additional medical skills. Sociability helps newly qualified midwives in becoming a member of a multidisciplinary team; neuroticism and perfectionism hinders them in their work. Clear expectations and a settling-in period may help newly qualified midwives to adapt to practice. The initiation phase could be better supported by preparing student midwives for working in a hospital setting and helping manage expectations about the settling-in period.
PMID: 32035343 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Posted in Midwifery