Do not yet abandon cephalic vein access for multiple leads in ICD implantation.

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Do not yet abandon cephalic vein access for multiple leads in ICD implantation.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2020 Aug 07;:

Authors: Maass AH, Groenveld HF, Rienstra M

PMID: 32767614 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Blood Markers of Portal Hypertension Are Associated with Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements during Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

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Blood Markers of Portal Hypertension Are Associated with Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements during Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

Semin Thromb Hemost. 2020 Aug 05;:

Authors: Arshad F, Lisman T, Porte RJ

Abstract
There is increasing evidence that portal hypertension plays a major role in bleeding risk during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We investigated the association between preoperative blood levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and soluble CD163 (sCD163), which are established markers of portal hypertension, and blood loss and transfusion requirements during OLT. We measured levels of VWF and sCD163 in preoperative serum samples of 168 adult patients undergoing a primary OLT between 1998 and 2012. Preoperative levels of VWF and sCD163 correlated with the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (r = 0.414, p < 0.001 and r = 0.382, p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with high VWF or sCD163 levels (VWF and sCD163 levels above the median) had a substantially increased risk of needing red blood cell transfusion compared with patients with low VWF or sCD163 levels (VWF and sCD163 levels below the median) (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.7-7.0] and 2.3 [95% CI 1.1-4.5], respectively). Blood loss was highest in patients with both high VWF or sCD163 levels and a high preoperative international normalized ratio. Elevated blood levels of markers of portal hypertension are associated with increased blood loss and transfusion requirements during OLT and support the notion that portal hypertension is an important contributor to perioperative blood loss.

PMID: 32757181 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Anticoagulant Management and Synthesis of Hemostatic Proteins during Machine Preservation of Livers for Transplantation.

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Anticoagulant Management and Synthesis of Hemostatic Proteins during Machine Preservation of Livers for Transplantation.

Semin Thromb Hemost. 2020 Aug 05;:

Authors: Karangwa SA, Lisman T, Porte RJ

Abstract
Liver transplantation remains the only curative treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Despite a steadily increasing demand for suitable donor livers, the current pool of donor organs fails to meet this demand. To resolve this discrepancy, livers traditionally considered to be of suboptimal quality and function are increasingly utilized. These marginal livers, however, are less tolerant to the current standard cold preservation of donor organs. Therefore, alternative preservation methods have been sought and are progressively applied into clinical practice. Ex situ machine perfusion is a promising alternative preservation modality particularly for suboptimal donor livers as it provides the ability to resuscitate, recondition, and test the viability of an organ prior to transplantation. This review addresses the modalities of machine perfusion currently being applied, and particularly focuses on the hemostatic management employed during machine perfusion. We discuss the anticoagulant agents used, the variation in dosage, and administration, as well as the implications of perfusion for extended periods of time in terms of coagulation activation associated with production of coagulation factors during perfusion. Furthermore, in regard to viability testing of an organ prior to transplantation, we discuss the possibilities and limitations of utilizing the synthesis of liver-derived coagulation factors as potential viability markers.

PMID: 32757182 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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[Which side effects should I inform patients about?]

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[Which side effects should I inform patients about?]

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2020 Jul 30;164:

Authors: Reumerman MO, van Puijenbroek EP, Janson JM, van Agtmael MA

Abstract
The law requires that healthcare professionals adequately inform patients about possible side effects when they prescribe new pharmacological treatments. There are several reasons (lack of time, fear of nocebo effect, patient and prescriber preferences) why informing patients in detail could be undesirable or even harmful. Prescribers should focus on two types of side effects: (a) common side effects with significant impact on the quality of life and (b) side effects that should be recognised in time to prevent further harm. During treatment, patients should be monitored regularly for efficacy and side effects in order to weigh benefits and risks and to stop or switch therapy when necessary.

PMID: 32757513 [PubMed – in process]

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Older adults reduce the complexity and efficiency of neuromuscular control to preserve walking balance.

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Older adults reduce the complexity and efficiency of neuromuscular control to preserve walking balance.

Exp Gerontol. 2020 Aug 01;:111050

Authors: da Silva Costa AA, Moraes R, Hortobágyi T, Sawers A

Abstract
Healthy aging modifies neuromuscular control of dynamic balance. Challenging tasks could amplify such modifications, providing clinical insights. We examined the effects of age and walking condition difficulty on neuromuscular control of walking balance. We analyzed whole-body kinematics and activity of 13 right leg and trunk muscles in 17 young (11 males and 6 females; age 24 ± 3 years) and 14 older adults (3 males and 11 females; age 69 ± 4 years) while walking on a taped line on the floor and a 6-cm wide beam. Spatiotemporal parameters of gait, margin of stability, motor performance, and muscle synergies were estimated. Regardless of age, maintaining walking balance was more difficult on the beam compared to the taped line as evidenced by a shorter distance walked (17.3%), a reduction in step length (5.8%) and speed (10.3%), as well as a 40.0% smaller margin of stability during beam vs. tape walking. The number of muscle synergies was also higher during beam vs. tape walking. Compared to younger adults, older adults had larger margin of stability during beam walking. Older adults also had higher muscle co-activity within each muscle synergy and greater variance accounted for by the first muscle synergy regardless of condition. Such age-effects may be interpreted as a safer, less efficient, and less complex neuromuscular modular control strategy. In conclusion, beam walking increased the difficulty of maintaining walking balance and induced adaptations in modular control. It seems that healthy older adults reduce the complexity and efficiency of neuromuscular control of walking to preserve walking balance.

PMID: 32750424 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Data mining algorithm predicts a range of adverse outcomes in major depression.

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Data mining algorithm predicts a range of adverse outcomes in major depression.

J Affect Disord. 2020 Jul 21;276:945-953

Authors: van Loo HM, Bigdeli TB, Milaneschi Y, Aggen SH, Kendler KS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Course of illness in major depression (MD) is highly varied, which might lead to both under- and overtreatment if clinicians adhere to a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach. Novel opportunities in data mining could lead to prediction models that can assist clinicians in treatment decisions tailored to the individual patient. This study assesses the performance of a previously developed data mining algorithm to predict future episodes of MD based on clinical information in new data.
METHODS: We applied a prediction model utilizing baseline clinical characteristics in subjects who reported lifetime MD to two independent test samples (total n = 4226). We assessed the model’s performance to predict future episodes of MD, anxiety disorders, and disability during follow-up (1-9 years after baseline). In addition, we compared its prediction performance with well-known risk factors for a severe course of illness.
RESULTS: Our model consistently predicted future episodes of MD in both test samples (AUC 0.68-0.73, modest prediction). Equally accurately, it predicted episodes of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder and disability (AUC 0.65-0.78). Our model predicted these outcomes more accurately than risk factors for a severe course of illness such as family history of MD and lifetime traumas.
LIMITATIONS: Prediction accuracy might be different for specific subgroups, such as hospitalized patients or patients with a different cultural background.
CONCLUSIONS: Our prediction model consistently predicted a range of adverse outcomes in MD across two independent test samples derived from studies in different subpopulations, countries, using different measurement procedures. This replication study holds promise for application in clinical practice.

PMID: 32745831 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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The biomethanation of cow manure in a continuous anaerobic digester can be boosted via a bioaugmentation culture containing Bathyarchaeota.

The biomethanation of cow manure in a continuous anaerobic digester can be boosted via a bioaugmentation culture containing Bathyarchaeota.

Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jul 23;745:141042

Authors: Li Y, Zhao J, Achinas S, Zhang Z, Krooneman J, Euverink GJW

Abstract
A bioaugmentation approach was used to enhance the performance of anaerobic digestion (AD) using cow manure (CM) as the substrate in a continuous system. To obtain the desirable microbial culture for bioaugmentation, a biochemical methane potential test (BMP) was used to evaluate three commonly used inocula namely (1) municipal solid waste (MSW), (2) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and (3) cow manure digester (CMMD) for their hydrolytic capacity. The highest lignocellulose removal (56% for cellulose and 50% for hemicellulose) and the most profusion of cellulolytic bacteria were obtained when CM was inoculated with CMMD. CMMD was thus used as the seed inoculum in a continuously operated reactor (Ra) with the fiber fraction of CM as the substrate to further enrich cellulolytic microbes. After 100 days (HRT: 30 days), the Bacteria fraction mainly contained Ruminofilibacter, norank_o_SBR1031, Treponema, Acetivibrio. Surprisingly, the Archaea fraction contained 97% ‘cellulolytic archaea’ norank_c_Bathyarchaeia (Phylum Bathyarchaeota). This enriched consortium was used in the bioaugmentation experiment. A positive effect of bioaugmentation was verified, with a substantial daily methane yield (DMY) enhancement (24.3%) obtained in the bioaugmented reactor (Rb) (179 mL CH4/gVS/d) than that of the control reactor (Rc) (144 mL CH4/gVS/d) (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the effluent of Rb enjoyed an improved cellulose reduction (14.7%) than that of Rc, whereas the amount of hemicellulose remained similar in both reactors’ effluent. When bioaugmentation stopped, its influence on the hydrolysis and methanogenesis sustained, reflected by an improved DMY (160 mL CH4/gVS/d) and lower cellulose content (53 mg/g TS) in Rb than those in Rc (DMY 144 mL/CH4/gVS/d and cellulose content 63 mg/g TS, respectively). The increased DMY of the continuous reactor seeded with a specifically enriched consortium able to degrade the fiber fraction in CM shows the feasibility of applying bioaugmentation in AD of CM.

PMID: 32736108 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Perceived social capital and binge drinking in older adults: The Health and Retirement Study, US data from 2006-2014.

Perceived social capital and binge drinking in older adults: The Health and Retirement Study, US data from 2006-2014.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 Jun 29;214:108099

Authors: Villalonga-Olives E, Almansa J, Shaya F, Kawachi I

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Social capital has been described as having both positive influences as well as negative influences (“the dark side”) on health behaviors. We sought to test the association of perceived social capital on the risk of binge drinking among older adults, using a longitudinal design.
METHODS: We used HRS (Health and Retirement Study) data, a nationally representative sample of US adults aged ≥50 years evaluated every two years (from 2006 to 2014). We investigated the relationship between perceived social capital (neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder, positive social support and negative social support) and binge drinking over time, with a multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) approach, modelling number of binge-drinking days as hurdle negative binomial. We used MSEM estimating the associations at person level (overall) and within waves.
RESULTS: The sample included 19,140 individuals. At baseline mean age was 66.8 (SD 10.3). Over time, the number of binge drinking days decreased. Negative social support increased the average number of binge drinking days among those who drink, where one unit increase was associated with an increase of 37 % in the expected number of days binge drinking in the same wave. The association of positive social support on the number of binge drinking days was stronger for females (-0.59 (SE = 0.12)), while neighborhood social cohesion was significantly associated with binge drinking in females (-0.05 (SE = 0.01)), but not in males.
CONCLUSIONS: Negative social support favored binge drinking. Positive social support and neighborhood social cohesion are protective factors for binge drinking, especially for women.

PMID: 32736315 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Advances of epigenetic editing

Advances of epigenetic editing

Gjaltema, R. A. F. & Rots, M. G., Aug-2020, In : Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 57, p. 75-81 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Original language English
Pages (from-to) 75-81
Number of pages 7
Journal Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Volume 57
Early online date 29-Jun-2020
Publication status Published – Aug-2020
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Baseline urinary metabolites predict albuminuria response to spironolactone in type 2 diabetes

Baseline urinary metabolites predict albuminuria response to spironolactone in type 2 diabetes

Mulder, S., Perco, P., Oxlund, C., Mehdi, U. F., Hankemeier, T., Jacobsen, I. A., Toto, R., Heerspink, H. J. L. & Pena, M. J., Aug-2020, In : Translational Research. 222, p. 17-27 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Original language English
Pages (from-to) 17-27
Number of pages 11
Journal Translational Research
Volume 222
Early online date 2020
Publication status Published – Aug-2020
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Can we safely reduce the radiation dose to the heart while compromising the dose to the lungs in oesophageal cancer patients?

Can we safely reduce the radiation dose to the heart while compromising the dose to the lungs in oesophageal cancer patients?

Beukema, J. C., Kawaguchi, Y., Sijtsema, N. M., Zhai, T-T., Langendijk, J. A., van Dijk, L. V., van Luijk, P., Teshima, T. & Muijs, C. T., Aug-2020, In : Radiotherapy and Oncology. 149, 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Original language English
Number of pages 6
Journal Radiotherapy and Oncology
Volume 149
Early online date 2020
Publication status Published – Aug-2020
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Approach to the Patient: Perioperative Management of the Patient with Pheochromocytoma or Sympathetic Paraganglioma.

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Approach to the Patient: Perioperative Management of the Patient with Pheochromocytoma or Sympathetic Paraganglioma.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Sep 01;105(9):

Authors: Berends AMA, Kerstens MN, Lenders JWM, Timmers HJLM

Abstract
Pheochromocytomas and sympathetic paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare chromaffin cell tumors originating in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic paraganglia, respectively, which share the capacity to synthesize and release catecholamines. The incidence of PPGL has increased in recent years. Surgical resection is the only curative treatment for PPGL. Management of patients with PPGL is complex and should be done by a specialized multidisciplinary team in centers with broad expertise. Surgical resection of a PPGL is a high-risk procedure for which optimal pretreatment with antihypertensive drugs is required in combination with state-of-the-art surgical procedures and anesthesiological techniques. In this article we discuss the underlying evidence and the pros and cons of presurgical medical preparation. Finally, the areas of uncertainty and controversies in this field are addressed.

PMID: 32726444 [PubMed – in process]

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Correction: Increase in the Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio relates to Injury Risk in Competitive Runners.

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Correction: Increase in the Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio relates to Injury Risk in Competitive Runners.

Int J Sports Med. 2020 Jul 29;:

Authors: Dijkhuis TB, Otter R, Aiello M, Velthuijsen H, Lemmink K

PMID: 32726835 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Maturation of Intestinal Oxygenation: A Review of Mechanisms and Clinical Implications for Preterm Neonates.

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Maturation of Intestinal Oxygenation: A Review of Mechanisms and Clinical Implications for Preterm Neonates.

Front Pediatr. 2020;8:354

Authors: Dotinga BM, Mintzer JP, Moore JE, Hulscher JBF, Bos AF, Kooi EMW

Abstract
Nutrient requirements of preterm neonates may be substantial, to support growth and maturation processes in the presence of challenging post-natal circumstances. This may be accompanied by substantial intestinal oxygen requirements. Preterm neonates may not be able to meet these oxygen requirements, due to a developmental delay in intestinal oxygenation regulation mechanisms. This review summarizes the available literature on post-natal maturation of intestinal oxygenation mechanisms and translates these changes into clinical observations and potential implications for preterm neonates. The different mechanisms that may be involved in regulation of intestinal oxygenation, regardless of post-natal age, are first discussed. The contribution of these mechanisms to intestinal oxygenation regulation is then evaluated in newborn and mature intestine. Finally, the course of clinical observations is used to translate these findings to potential implications for preterm neonates.

PMID: 32719756 [PubMed]

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Conical epidermal cells cause velvety colouration and enhanced patterning in Mandevilla flowers.

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Conical epidermal cells cause velvety colouration and enhanced patterning in Mandevilla flowers.

Faraday Discuss. 2020 Jul 28;:

Authors: Stavenga DG, Staal M, van der Kooi CJ

Abstract
The majority of angiosperms have flowers with conical epidermal cells, which are assumed to have various functions, such as enhancing the visual signal to pollinators, but detailed optical studies on how conical epidermal cells determine the flower’s visual appearance are scarce. Here we report that conical epidermal cells of Mandevilla sanderi flowers effectively reduce surface gloss and create a velvety appearance. Owing to the reduction in surface gloss, the flower further makes more efficient use of floral pigments and light scattering structures inside the flower. The interior backscattering yields a cosine angular dependence of reflected light, meaning that the flowers approximate near-perfect (Lambertian) diffusers, creating a visual signal that is visible across a wide angular space. Together with the large flowers and the tilted corolla tips, this generates a distinct visual pattern, which may enhance the visibility to pollinators.

PMID: 32719835 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Biophotonics of diversely coloured peacock tail feathers.

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Biophotonics of diversely coloured peacock tail feathers.

Faraday Discuss. 2020 Jul 28;:

Authors: Freyer P, Stavenga DG

Abstract
Peacock feathers feature a rich gamut of colours, created by a most sophisticated structural colouration mechanism. The feather barbules contain biophotonic structures consisting of two-dimensionally-ordered lattices of cylindrical melanosomes and air channels embedded in keratin. Here, we study the reflectance characteristics of the various peacock tail feather colours by applying bifurcated-probe- and micro-spectrophotometry and imaging scatterometry. We compare the experimental results with published anatomical SEM and TEM data, using a transfer-matrix based effective-medium multilayer model that includes the number and diameter of the melanosome rodlets and air channels, the lattice spacing and the keratin cortex thickness, together with the recently determined wavelength-dependence of the refractive indices of keratin and melanin. Slight variations in the parameter values cause substantial changes in the spectral position and shape of the reflectance bands. We find that the number of layers crucially determines the number of peaks in the reflectance spectra. For a small number of melanosome layers, the reflectance band shape is particularly sensitive to the properties of the uppermost layer, which provides a simple mechanism for tuning the feather colours.

PMID: 32720960 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Global visual salience of competing stimuli.

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Global visual salience of competing stimuli.

J Vis. 2020 Jul 01;20(7):27

Authors: Hernández-García A, Ramos Gameiro R, Grillini A, König P

Abstract
Current computational models of visual salience accurately predict the distribution of fixations on isolated visual stimuli. It is not known, however, whether the global salience of a stimulus, that is, its effectiveness in the competition for attention with other stimuli, is a function of the local salience or an independent measure. Further, do task and familiarity with the competing images influence eye movements? Here, we investigated the direction of the first saccade to characterize and analyze the global visual salience of competing stimuli. Participants freely observed pairs of images while eye movements were recorded. The pairs balanced the combinations of new and already seen images, as well as task and task-free trials. Then, we trained a logistic regression model that accurately predicted the location-left or right image-of the first fixation for each stimulus pair, accounting too for the influence of task, familiarity, and lateral bias. The coefficients of the model provided a reliable measure of global salience, which we contrasted with two distinct local salience models, GBVS and Deep Gaze. The lack of correlation of the behavioral data with the former and the small correlation with the latter indicate that global salience cannot be explained by the feature-driven local salience of images. Further, the influence of task and familiarity was rather small, and we reproduced the previously reported left-sided bias. Summarized, we showed that natural stimuli have an intrinsic global salience related to the human initial gaze direction, independent of the local salience and little influenced by task and familiarity.

PMID: 32720973 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Genetics of Atrial Fibrillation in 2020: GWAS, Genome Sequencing, Polygenic Risk, and Beyond.

Genetics of Atrial Fibrillation in 2020: GWAS, Genome Sequencing, Polygenic Risk, and Beyond.

Circ Res. 2020 Jun 19;127(1):21-33

Authors: Roselli C, Rienstra M, Ellinor PT

Abstract
Atrial fibrillation is a common heart rhythm disorder that leads to an increased risk for stroke and heart failure. Atrial fibrillation is a complex disease with both environmental and genetic risk factors that contribute to the arrhythmia. Over the last decade, rapid progress has been made in identifying the genetic basis for this common condition. In this review, we provide an overview of the primary types of genetic analyses performed for atrial fibrillation, including linkage studies, genome-wide association studies, and studies of rare coding variation. With these results in mind, we aim to highlighting the existing knowledge gaps and future directions for atrial fibrillation genetics research.

PMID: 32716721 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Lung transplantation in neonates and infants: ESPNIC survey of European neonatologists and pediatric intensivists.

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Lung transplantation in neonates and infants: ESPNIC survey of European neonatologists and pediatric intensivists.

Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 21;:

Authors: De Luca D, Tissieres P, Kneyber MCJ, Humbert M, Mercier O

Abstract
Lung and heart & lung transplantations in neonates and infants are extreme treatments offered for some life-threatening conditions especially in some North-American centers with promising results. These transplantations are rarely performed in Europe, and we set up a continent-based survey to describe the attitude of European neonatologists and pediatric intensivists on the subject and identify the main indications for this transplantation and the obstacles for the realization of a European lung transplantation program.Conclusion: The main indications for lung transplantation program for neonates and infants are represented by congenital disorders, and physicians indicate as main obstacles the donors’ availability. European neonatologists and pediatric intensivists are interested to create a European network to overcome this problem and realize a lung transplantation program for neonates and infants. What is Known: • Lung transplantation in neonates and infants seems to slowly increase, and some North-American centers accumulated a relevant experience. What is New: • European neonatologists and pediatric intensivists are interested in creating a European network for a lung transplantation program for neonates and infants. • The main indications for lung transplantation program for neonates and infants are represented by congenital disorders and main obstacle to lung transplantation is the donors’ availability.

PMID: 32691132 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Highly different flavonol content explains geographic variations in the UV reflecting properties of flowers of the corn poppy, Papaver rhoeas (Papaveraceae).

Highly different flavonol content explains geographic variations in the UV reflecting properties of flowers of the corn poppy, Papaver rhoeas (Papaveraceae).

Phytochemistry. 2020 Jul 20;178:112457

Authors: Dudek B, Schneider B, Hilger HH, Stavenga DG, Martínez-Harms J

Abstract
Papaver rhoeas, the corn poppy, is a very common weed in cereal fields all over the world. Its flowers generally display a bright red coloration, but their reflectance in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range varies geographically. Whereas the UV reflectance of East Mediterranean flowers is minor, that of Central European ones is substantial. By comparing the pigmentation of the differently reflecting flowers, we found that only East Mediterranean flower petals contain high amounts of UV absorbing flavonol glycosides. The most abundant compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction and preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated by NMR and HRESI-MS, yielding seven kaempferol and quercetin glycosides, mostly unknown in P. rhoeas petals. Additionally, reflectance and transmittance measurements revealed that wavelength-selective scattering effects do not contribute to the flower color differences observed within this species. Possible abiotic and biotic factors influencing the UV reflecting properties of East Mediterranean and Central European poppies are discussed.

PMID: 32692661 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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