Phonetic Realisation and Phonemic Categorisation of the Final Reduced Corner Vowels in the Finnic Languages of Ingria.
Authors: Kuznetsova N, Verkhodanova V
Individual variability in sound change was explored at three stages of final vowel reduction and loss in the endangered Finnic varieties of Ingria (subdialects of Ingrian, Votic and Ingrian Finnish). The correlation between the realisation of reduced vowels and their phonemic categorisation by speakers was studied. The correlated results showed that if V was pronounced >70%, its starting loss was not yet perceived, apart from certain frequent elements, but after >70% loss, V was not perceived any more. A split of 50/50 between V and loss in production correlated with the same split in categorisation. At the beginning of a sound change, production is, therefore, more innovative, but after reanalysis, categorisation becomes more innovative and leads the change. The vowel a was the most innovative in terms of loss, u/o were the most conservative, and i was in the middle, while consonantal palatalisation was more salient than labialisation. These differences are based on acoustics, articulation and perception.
PMID: 31112960 [PubMed – in process]
Posted in Phonetica
Gerbrig Berger: Genetic defects in myeloid malignancies and preleukemic conditions Acute myeloïde leukemie (AML) en myelodysplastisch syndroom (MDS) …
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Large-scale quantitative isolation of pure protein N-linked glycans.
Carbohydr Res. 2019 May 03;479:13-22
Authors: Valk-Weeber RL, Dijkhuizen L, van Leeuwen SS
Glycoproteins are biologically active proteins of which the attached glycans contribute to their biological functionality. Limited data is available on the functional properties of these N-glycans in isolation, without the protein core. Glycan release, typically performed with the PNGase F enzyme, is achieved on denatured proteins in the presence of detergents which are notoriously difficult to be completely removed. In this work we compared two methods aiming at recovering N-glycans in a high yield and at high purity from a PNGase F glycoprotein digest of bovine lactoferrin. Detergents were removed from the digest by two separate approaches. In the first approach, protein and glycans were precipitated with acetone and the detergent containing supernatant was discarded. In the second approach, detergent was removed by adsorption onto a polystyrene resin. Following detergent removal, the glycans were further purified by a sequence of solid phase extraction (SPE) steps. Both approaches for detergent removal yielded a final glycan purity above 85%. Recovery of the glycans from lactoferrin was, however, much lower when utilizing acetone precipitation versus the polystyrene resin; 52% versus 85% respectively. A more detailed analysis of the acetone precipitation step revealed a loss of shorter oligomannose structures specifically. A loss of glycans of lesser complexity (oligomannose and biantennary structures) was also observed for other glycoproteins (RNase B, porcine thyroglobulin, human lactoferrin). These results indicate that acetone precipitation, a commonly used step for small-scale glycan purification, is not suitable for all target glycoproteins. The polystyrene resin detergent removal step conserved the full N-glycan profile and could be applied to all mammalian glycoproteins tested. Using this optimized protocol, large-scale quantitative isolation of N-glycan structures was achieved with sufficient purity for functional studies.
PMID: 31100702 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
The role of event relevance and congruence to social groups in flashbulb memory formation.
Memory. 2019 May 13;:1-13
Authors: Talarico JM, Bohn A, Wessel I
Flashbulb memories are vivid, confidently held, long-lasting memories for the personal circumstances of learning about an important event. Importance is determined, in part, by social group membership. Events that are relevant to one’s social group, and furthermore, are congruent with the prior beliefs of that group, should be more likely to be retained as flashbulb memories. The Fukushima nuclear disaster was relevant to ongoing political conversations in both Germany and the Netherlands, but, while the disaster was congruent with German beliefs about the dangers of nuclear energy, it was incongruent with Dutch support for nuclear power. Danish participants would not have found the disaster to be particularly relevant. Partially consistent with this prediction, across two samples (N = 265 and N = 518), German participants were most likely to have flashbulb memories for the Fukushima disaster. Furthermore, event features thought to be related to flashbulb memory formation (e.g. ratings of importance and consequentiality) also differed as a function of nationality. Spontaneously generated flashbulb memories for events other than Fukushima also suggested that participants reported events that were relevant to national identity (e.g. the Munich attacks for Germans, the Utøya massacre for Danes, and Malaysian Airlines flight MH-17 for Dutch participants).
PMID: 31081458 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Posted in Memory
No Effect of Musical Training on Frequency Selectivity Estimated Using Three Methods.
Trends Hear. 2019 Jan-Dec;23:2331216519841980
Authors: Moore BCJ, Wan J, Varathanathan A, Naddell S, Baer T
It is widely believed that the frequency selectivity of the auditory system is largely determined by processes occurring in the cochlea. If so, musical training would not be expected to influence frequency selectivity. Consistent with this, auditory filter shapes for low center frequencies do not differ for musicians and nonmusicians. However, it has been reported that psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) at 4000 Hz were sharper for musicians than for nonmusicians. This study explored the origin of the discrepancy across studies. Frequency selectivity was estimated for musicians and nonmusicians using three methods: fast PTCs with a masker that swept in frequency, “traditional” PTCs obtained using several fixed masker center frequencies, and the notched-noise method. The signal frequency was 4000 Hz. The data were fitted assuming that each side of the auditory filter had the shape of a rounded-exponential function. The sharpness of the auditory filters, estimated as the Q10 values, did not differ significantly between musicians and nonmusicians for any of the methods, but detection efficiency tended to be higher for the musicians. This is consistent with the idea that musicianship influences auditory proficiency but does not influence the peripheral processes that determine the frequency selectivity of the auditory system.
PMID: 31081487 [PubMed – in process]
Posted in Trends Hear
Wietse Wieringa: Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in inflammatory eye diseases Wieringa richtte zich in zijn proefschrift op oogziekten die met …
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Communication development from an intersubjective perspective: Exploring the use of a layered communication model to describe communication development in students with congenital deafblindness.
J Commun Disord. 2019 Apr 25;80:35-51
Authors: Wolthuis K, Bol GW, Minnaert A, Janssen MJ
This exploratory study conducts a quantitative investigation on the communication development of students with congenital deafblindness (CDB). First, a layered communication model (LCM) is introduced, describing communicative behaviors based on three layers of intersubjective development for typically developing children (Bråten & Trevarthen, 2007). Subsequently, an analysis is made of how applicable the LCM is for children with CDB. Video recordings of four dyads of students with CDB with varying developmental ages and their teachers are coded using ten-second partial interval coding. The presence of LCM behaviors, the student and teacher contributions to communication, and the development over a half-year period are described and compared between dyads. The results reflected the developmental differences between dyads. At the primary layer, all behaviors occurred a comparable number of times between dyads, which confirms that this is a basic communication layer. Quantitative differences between dyads were encountered between and within the secondary and tertiary layers. Teacher contribution was higher for students with lower developmental ages compared to students with higher developmental ages. Also, teacher contribution was higher for the secondary and tertiary layer behaviors of the LCM compared to the primary layer behaviors. No increase was found in the behaviors over the half-year period. Results suggest that the LCM can be used to gain insight into the communication level of a dyad, hereby paving the way for intervention studies to improve communication development.
PMID: 31075557 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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