Soccer skill development in talented players.
Int J Sports Med. 2013 Aug;34(8):720-6
Authors: Huijgen BC, Elferink-Gemser MT, Ali A, Visscher C
The aim of the study was to gain insight into the development of soccer-specific skills and whether differences between talented players exist on the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Two scores were derived from the LSPT: 1) execution time: time to complete 16 passes (speed) and 2) skill performance time: execution time including bonus and penalty time for accuracy. The study consisted of 2 parts, the first of which incorporated a quasi-longitudinal design with 270 talented players aged 10-18 years performing the LSPT (661 measurement occasions); multilevel modelling was applied. Secondly, differences between those players allowed to continue in the development program (selected, n=269) and players who were forced to leave (de-selected, n=50) were investigated using independent sample t-tests. The longitudinal data showed that the predicted execution time (i. e., speed) improved approximately 18% from age 10-18 years (P<0.05), skill performance time (i. e., combination of speed and accuracy) was predicted to improve approximately 32% (P<0.05). The second part showed that selected players outscored de-selected players only on skill performance time (P<0.05), not on execution time (P>0.05). In conclusion, in high-level youth soccer, the combination of speed and accuracy in soccer skills might be more important than speed alone.
PMID: 23459855 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Outcome of clinical stage III melanoma patients with FDG-PET and whole-body CT added to the diagnostic workup.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Sep;20(9):3098-105
Authors: Niebling MG, Bastiaannet E, Hoekstra OS, Bonenkamp JJ, Koelemij R, Hoekstra HJ
BACKGROUND: Combined whole-body FDG-PET and CT provide the most comprehensive staging of melanoma patients with palpable lymph node metastases (LNM). The aim of this study is to analyze survival of FDG-PET and CT negative or positive melanoma patients and to assess which factors have independent prognostic impact on survival of these patients.
METHODS: Patients with palpable and histologically or cytologically proven LNM of melanoma, referred to participating hospitals for examination with FDG-PET and CT, were selected from a previous study. Melanoma-specific survival (MSS) and disease-free period (DFP) were analyzed for FDG-PET and CT positive and negative patients using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox-regression analysis was performed to analyze which patient or melanoma characteristics had significant impact on MSS or DFP.
RESULTS: For all 252 patients 5-year MSS was 38.2%. For FDG-PET and CT negative and positive patients 5-year MSS was 47.6 and 16.9%, respectively. Disease-free period for FDG-PET and CT negative patients was 46.0% after 5 years. Gender, a positive FDG-PET and CT, LNM in axilla compared to head or neck, and presence of extranodal growth were independent factors for worse MSS in all patients. Positive FDG-PET and CT was the most important prognostic factor for MSS with a hazard ratio of 2.54 (95% CI, 1.55-4.17, P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Staging melanoma patients with palpable LNM is more accurate when whole-body FDG-PET and CT is added to the diagnostic workup. Hence, FDG-PET and CT, preferably combined, are indicated in the staging of clinical stage III melanoma patients.
PMID: 23612885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Glomerular and tubular damage markers in individuals with progressive albuminuria.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Jul;8(7):1106-14
Authors: Nauta FL, Scheven L, Meijer E, van Oeveren W, de Jong PE, Bakker SJ, Gansevoort RT
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Albuminuria is associated with risk for renal and cardiovascular disease. It is difficult to predict which persons will progress in albuminuria. This study investigated whether assessment of urinary markers associated with damage to different parts of the nephron may help identify individuals that will progress in albuminuria.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Individuals were selected from a prospective community-based cohort study with serial follow-up and defined as “progressors” if they belonged to the quintile of participants with the most rapid annual increase in albuminuria, and reached an albuminuria ≥150 mg/d during follow-up. Patients with known renal disease or macroalbuminuria at baseline were excluded. Each progressor was matched to two control participants, based on baseline albuminuria, age, and sex. Furthermore, damage markers were measured in a separate set of healthy individuals.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, 183 of 8394 participants met the criteria for progressive albuminuria. Baseline clinical characteristics were comparable between progressors and matched controls (n=366). Both had higher baseline albuminuria than the overall population. Urinary excretion of the glomerular damage marker IgG was significantly higher in progressors, whereas urinary excretion of proximal tubular damage markers and inflammatory markers was lower in these individuals compared with controls. Healthy individuals (n=109) had the lowest values for all urinary damage markers measured.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that albuminuria associated with markers of glomerular damage is more likely to progress, whereas albuminuria associated with markers of tubulointerstitial damage is more likely to remain stable.
PMID: 23539232 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Hydrogen sulfide restores a normal morphological phenotype in Werner syndrome fibroblasts, attenuates oxidative damage and modulates mTOR pathway.
Pharmacol Res. 2013 Aug;74:34-44
Authors: Talaei F, van Praag VM, Henning RH
Werner syndrome (WS) protein is involved in DNA repair and its truncation causes Werner syndrome, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder with a premature aging phenotype. WRN protein mutation is currently known as the primary cause of WS. In cultured WS fibroblasts, we found an increase in cytosolic aggregates and hypothesized that the phenotype is indirectly related to an excess activation of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, leading to the formation of protein aggregates in the cytosol with increasing levels of oxidative stress. As we found that the expression levels of the two main H2S producing enzymes, cystathionine β synthase and cystathionine γ lyase, were lower in WS cells compared to normal, we investigated the effect of administration of H2S as NaHS (50μM). NaHS treatment blocked mTOR activity, abrogated protein aggregation and normalized the phenotype of WS cells. Similar results were obtained by treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. This is the first report suggesting that hydrogen sulfide administered as NaHS restores proteostasis and cellular morphological phenotype of WS cells and hints to the importance of transsulfuration pathway in WS.
PMID: 23702336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy of early stage oral squamous cell carcinoma: a comparison to surgical treatment.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Sep;20(9):3076-82
Authors: de Visscher SA, Melchers LJ, Dijkstra PU, Karakullukcu B, Tan IB, Hopper C, Roodenburg JL, Witjes MJ
BACKGROUND: mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for treatment of early head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study is a retrospective comparison of PDT with transoral surgery in the treatment of early primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity/oropharynx.
METHODS: PDT data were retrieved from four study databases; surgical results were retrieved from our institutional database. To select similar primary tumors, infiltration depth was restricted to 5 mm for the surgery group. A total of 126 T1 and 30 T2 tumors were included in the PDT group, and 58 T1 and 33 T2 tumors were included in the surgically treated group.
RESULTS: Complete response rates with PDT and surgery were 86 and 76% for T1, respectively, and for T2 63 and 78%. Lower local disease-free survival for PDT compared to surgery was found. However, when comparing the need for local retreatment, no significant difference for T1 tumors was found, while for T2 tumors surgery resulted in significantly less need for local retreatment. No significant differences in overall survival between surgery and PDT were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: PDT for T1 tumors results in a similar need for retreatment compared to surgery, while for T2 tumors PDT performs worse. Local disease-free survival for surgery is better than for PDT. This may be influenced by the benefit surgery has of having histology available. This allows an early decision on reintervention, while for PDT one has to follow a wait-and-see policy. Future prospective studies should compare efficacy as well as morbidity.
PMID: 23686100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effects of family cohesion and heart rate reactivity on aggressive/rule-breaking behavior and prosocial behavior in adolescence: the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey study.
Dev Psychopathol. 2013 Aug;25(3):699-712
Authors: Sijtsema JJ, Nederhof E, Veenstra R, Ormel J, Oldehinkel AJ, Ellis BJ
The biological sensitivity to context hypothesis posits that high physiological reactivity (i.e., increases in arousal from baseline) constitutes heightened sensitivity to environmental influences, for better or worse. To test this hypothesis, we examined the interactive effects of family cohesion and heart rate reactivity to a public speaking task on aggressive/rule-breaking and prosocial behavior in a large sample of adolescents (N = 679; M age = 16.14). Multivariate analyses revealed small- to medium-sized main effects of lower family cohesion and lower heart rate reactivity on higher levels of aggressive/rule-breaking and lower levels of prosocial behavior. Although there was some evidence of three-way interactions among family cohesion, heart rate reactivity, and sex in predicting these outcome variables, these interactions were not in the direction predicted by the biological sensitivity to context hypothesis. Instead, heightened reactivity appeared to operate as a protective factor against family adversity, rather than as a susceptibility factor. The results of the present study raise the possibility that stress reactivity may no longer operate as a mechanism of differential susceptibility in adolescence.
PMID: 23880386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
TLM-Quant: an open-source pipeline for visualization and quantification of gene expression heterogeneity in growing microbial cells.
PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e68696
Authors: Piersma S, Denham EL, Drulhe S, Tonk RH, Schwikowski B, van Dijl JM
Gene expression heterogeneity is a key driver for microbial adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions, cell differentiation and the evolution of species. This phenomenon has therefore enormous implications, not only for life in general, but also for biotechnological applications where unwanted subpopulations of non-producing cells can emerge in large-scale fermentations. Only time-lapse fluorescence microscopy allows real-time measurements of gene expression heterogeneity. A major limitation in the analysis of time-lapse microscopy data is the lack of fast, cost-effective, open, simple and adaptable protocols. Here we describe TLM-Quant, a semi-automatic pipeline for the analysis of time-lapse fluorescence microscopy data that enables the user to visualize and quantify gene expression heterogeneity. Importantly, our pipeline builds on the open-source packages ImageJ and R. To validate TLM-Quant, we selected three possible scenarios, namely homogeneous expression, highly ‘noisy’ heterogeneous expression, and bistable heterogeneous expression in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. This bacterium is both a paradigm for systems-level studies on gene expression and a highly appreciated biotechnological ‘cell factory’. We conclude that the temporal resolution of such analyses with TLM-Quant is only limited by the numbers of recorded images.
PMID: 23874729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Posted in PLoS One
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A CD47-blocking TRAIL fusion protein with dual pro-phagocytic and pro-apoptotic anticancer activity.
Br J Haematol. 2014 Jan;164(2):304-7
Authors: Wiersma VR, He Y, Samplonius DF, van Ginkel RJ, Gerssen J, Eggleton P, Zhou J, Bremer E, Helfrich W
PMID: 24164421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Medication reconciliation to solve discrepancies in discharge documents after discharge from the hospital.
Int J Clin Pharm. 2013 Aug;35(4):600-7
Rob KW Douma, Remko Soer, Wim P Krijnen, Michiel Reneman, Cees P van der Schans
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2014, 6:10 (25 February 2014)
Elvira OG van Vliet, Ewoud Schuit, Karst Y Heida, Brent C Opmeer, Marjolein Kok, Wilfried Gyselaers, Martina M Porath, Mallory Woiski, Caroline J Bax, Kitty WM Bloemenkamp, Hubertina CJ Scheepers, Yves Jaquemyn, Erik van Beek, Hans JJ Duvekot, Maureen TM Franssen, Bas N Bijvank, Joke H Kok, Arie Franx, Ben Willem J Mol, Martijn A Oudijk
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014, 14:93 (3 March 2014)
Hanneke Bouwsema, Corry K van der Sluis, Raoul M Bongers
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2014, 11:16 (25 February 2014)
FADD expression is associated with regional and distant metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Histopathology. 2013 Aug;63(2):263-70
Authors: Pattje WJ, Melchers LJ, Slagter-Menkema L, Mastik MF, Schrijvers ML, Gibcus JH, Kluin PM, Hoegen-Chouvalova O, van der Laan BF, Roodenburg JL, van der Wal JE, Schuuring E, Langendijk JA
AIMS: The Fas-associated death domain gene (FADD) is often overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), and is considered to be a driver gene in amplification of the chromosomal 11q13.3 region. Amplification of 11q13.3 is associated with increased metastasis in HNSCC and breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between FADD protein expression in advanced-stage HNSCC and clinicopathological features and outcome.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Tumour tissues of 177 HNSCC patients uniformly treated with primary surgery and postoperative radiotherapy were collected. FADD expression was assessed on pretreatment tumour biopsies using immunohistochemistry. High FADD expression was detected in 44% of the HNSCC patients. High expression was associated with an increased rate of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001) and with a shorter distant metastasis-free interval (DMFI) (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.7, P = 0.046) when lymph node metastases were present.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that an increase in FADD expression is associated with a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis at presentation, and with shorter DMFI when lymph node metastases are present. High FADD expression in the primary tumour could be a useful marker to select patients for systemic treatment strategies that reduce the risk of distant metastases.
PMID: 23763459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Established and new-generation antithrombotic drugs in patients with cirrhosis – possibilities and caveats.
J Hepatol. 2013 Aug;59(2):358-66
Authors: Lisman T, Kamphuisen PW, Northup PG, Porte RJ
Until recently, it was widely accepted that patients with cirrhosis have a bleeding tendency related to the changes in the hemostatic system that occur as a consequence of the disease. However, it has now been well established that patients with cirrhosis are at risk for both bleeding and thrombotic complications. These thrombotic complications include portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and coronary or cerebrovascular infarctions. Antithrombotic drugs to prevent or treat thrombotic complications in patients with cirrhosis have been used only minimally in the past due to the perceived bleeding risk. As the thrombotic complications and the necessity of antithrombotic treatment in these patients are increasingly recognized, the use of antithrombotic drugs in this population is likely increasing. Moreover, given the rising incidence of fatty liver disease and generally longer survival times of patients with chronic liver diseases, it would be reasonable to presume that some of these thrombotic complications may be increasing in incidence over time. In this review, we will outline the indications for antithrombotic treatment in patients with cirrhosis. Furthermore, we will discuss the available antithrombotic drugs and indicate possible applications, advantages, and caveats. Since for many of these drugs very little experience in patients with cirrhosis exists, these data are essential in the design of future clinical and laboratory studies on mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of the various antithrombotic strategies in these patients.
PMID: 23548197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Posted in J Hepatol
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Can nontriggered thoracic CT be used for coronary artery calcium scoring? A phantom study.
Med Phys. 2013 Aug;40(8):081915
Authors: Xie X, Greuter MJ, Groen JM, de Bock GH, Oudkerk M, de Jong PA, Vliegenthart R
PURPOSE: Coronary artery calcium score, traditionally based on electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered computed tomography (CT), predicts cardiovascular risk. However, nontriggered CT is extensively utilized. The study-purpose is to evaluate the in vitro agreement in coronary calcium score between nontriggered thoracic CT and ECG-triggered cardiac CT.
METHODS: Three artificial coronary arteries containing calcifications of different densities (high, medium, and low), and sizes (large, medium, and small), were studied in a moving cardiac phantom. Two 64-detector CT systems were used. The phantom moved at 0-90 mm∕s in nontriggered low-dose CT as index test, and at 0-30 mm∕s in ECG-triggered CT as reference. Differences in calcium scores between nontriggered and ECG-triggered CT were analyzed by t-test and 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity to detect calcification was calculated as the percentage of positive calcium scores.
RESULTS: Overall, calcium scores in nontriggered CT were not significantly different to those in ECG-triggered CT (p>0.05). Calcium scores in nontriggered CT were within the 95% confidence interval of calcium scores in ECG-triggered CT, except predominantly at higher velocities (≥50 mm∕s) for the high-density and large-size calcifications. The sensitivity for a nonzero calcium score was 100% for large calcifications, but 46%±11% for small calcifications in nontriggered CT.
CONCLUSIONS: When performing multiple measurements, good agreement in positive calcium scores is found between nontriggered thoracic and ECG-triggered cardiac CT. Agreement decreases with increasing coronary velocity. From this phantom study, it can be concluded that a high calcium score can be detected by nontriggered CT, and thus, that nontriggered CT likely can identify individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, a zero calcium score in nontriggered CT does not reliably exclude coronary calcification.
PMID: 23927329 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Posted in Med Phys
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Phagocytosis of bacteria adhering to a biomaterial surface in a surface thermodynamic perspective.
PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e70046
Authors: da Silva Domingues JF, van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, van Kooten TG
Bacterial biofilms can increase the pathogenicity of infection and constitute a major problem in modern health-care, especially on biomaterial implants and devices. Biofilms are difficult to eradicate by the host immune system, even with antibiotics, and have been the number one cause of biomaterial implant and device failure for decades. Therefore, it is important to understand how immune cells interact with adhering pathogens. This study firstly aims to develop a simple method to quantify phagocytosis of six different strains of staphylococci adhering on a surface with phase-contrast-microscopy. Phagocytosis of adhering staphylococci to a glass surface by phagocytes was quantified in a parallel plate flow chamber, and expressed as a phagocytosis rate, accounting for the number of adhering staphylococci initially present and for the duration of phagocytosis. Murine macrophages were more effective in clearing staphylococci from a surface than human phagocytes, which require differentiation from their monocyte or promyelocytic state during an experiment. Direct visualization of internalization of a GFP-modified S. aureus strain inside phagocytes confirmed the validity of the method proposed. As a second aim, the differences in phagocytosis rates observed were investigated on a surface thermodynamic basis using measured contact angles of liquids on macroscopic lawns of staphylococci and phagocytes, confirming that phagocytosis of adhering pathogens can be regarded as a surface phenomenon. In addition, surface thermodynamics revealed that phagocytosis of adhering pathogens is determined by an interplay of physical attraction between pathogens and phagocytes and the influence of chemo-attractants. For future studies, these results will help to place in vitro experiments and murine infection models in better perspective with respect to human ones.
PMID: 23894585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Posted in PLoS One
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Contourlet-based active contour model for PET image segmentation.
Med Phys. 2013 Aug;40(8):082507
Authors: Abdoli M, Dierckx RA, Zaidi H
PURPOSE: PET-guided radiation therapy treatment planning, clinical diagnosis, assessment of tumor growth, and therapy response rely on the accurate delineation of the tumor volume and quantification of tracer uptake. Most PET image segmentation techniques proposed thus far are suboptimal in the presence of heterogeneity of tracer uptake within the lesion. This work presents an active contour model approach based on the method of Chan and Vese ["Active contours without edges," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 266-277 (2001)] designed to take into account the high level of statistical uncertainty (noise) and to handle the heterogeneity of tumor uptake typically present in PET images.
METHODS: In the proposed method, the fitting terms in the Chan-Vese formulation are modified by introducing new input images, including the smoothed version of the original image using anisotropic diffusion filtering (ADF) and the contourlet transform of the image. The advantage of utilizing ADF for image smoothing is that it avoids blurring the object’s edges and preserves the average activity within a region, which is important for accurate PET quantification. Moreover, incorporating the contourlet transform of the image into the fitting terms makes the energy functional more effective in directing the evolving curve toward the object boundaries due to the enhancement of the tumor-to-background ratio (TBR). The proper choice of the energy functional parameters has been formulated by making a clear consensus based on tumor heterogeneity and TBR levels. This cautious parameter selection leads to proper handling of heterogeneous lesions. The algorithm was evaluated using simulated phantom and clinical studies, where the ground truth and histology, respectively, were available for accurate quantitative analysis of the segmentation results. The proposed technique was also compared to a number of previously reported image segmentation techniques.
RESULTS: The results were quantitatively analyzed using three evaluation metrics, including the spatial overlap index (SOI), the mean relative error (MRE), and the mean classification error (MCE). Although the performance of the proposed method was analogous to other methods for some datasets, overall the proposed algorithm outperforms all other techniques. In the largest clinical group comprising nine datasets, the proposed approach improved the SOI from 0.41±0.14 obtained using the best-performing algorithm to 0.54±0.12 and reduced the MRE from 54.23±103.29 to 0.19±16.63 and the MCE from 112.86±69.07 to 60.58±18.43.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed segmentation technique is superior to other representative segmentation techniques in terms of highest overlap between the segmented volume and the ground truth∕histology and minimum relative and classification errors. Therefore, the proposed active contour model can result in more accurate tumor volume delineation from PET images.
PMID: 23927352 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Bronchoprotection by olodaterol is synergistically enhanced by tiotropium in a guinea pig model of allergic asthma.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Feb;348(2):303-10
Authors: Smit M, Zuidhof AB, Bos SI, Maarsingh H, Gosens R, Zaagsma J, Meurs H
The novel once-daily β₂-agonist bronchodilator drug olodaterol has recently been shown to be effective in patients with allergic asthma for >24 hours. An increased cholinergic tone common to these patients may decrease the effectiveness of β₂-agonists. This could provide a rationale for combination therapy with olodaterol and the long-acting anticholinergic tiotropium to aim for a once-daily treatment regimen. In guinea pigs, we evaluated the protective effects of olodaterol, alone and in combination with tiotropium, on airway responsiveness to histamine, which is partially mediated by a cholinergic reflex mechanism. In addition, using a guinea pig model of acute allergic asthma, we examined the cooperative effects of these bronchodilators on allergen-induced early (EAR) and late (LAR) asthmatic reactions, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) to histamine, and airway inflammation. It was demonstrated that the protective effect of olodaterol against histamine-induced bronchoconstriction was synergistically enhanced and prolonged in the presence of tiotropium. In addition, tiotropium synergistically augmented both the reversal of and the protection against the allergen-induced AHR after the EAR by olodaterol. Olodaterol and tiotropium were highly effective in inhibiting the magnitude of the allergen-induced EAR and LAR, and both reactions were fully inhibited by the combination of these drugs. It is remarkable that these effects were not associated with an effect on inflammatory cell infiltration in the airways. In conclusion, the results indicate that combination therapy with olodaterol and tiotropium may be highly effective in the treatment of allergen-induced asthmatic reactions and AHR.
PMID: 24307202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]