Computational modelling approaches to meditation research: why should we care?
Curr Opin Psychol. 2018 Nov 03;28:49-53
Authors: van Vugt M, Moye A, Sivakumar S
Computational modeling and meditation are not frequently mentioned in the same breath. However, in this article we argue that computational modeling can provide insights into the mechanisms by which meditation produces its effects on cognition. Moreover, computational modeling allows the researcher to make predictions about how effects of meditation will generalize to other contexts such as other tasks, which can be tested in subsequent experiments. In addition, computational theories can help to clarify similarities and differences between meditation practices, which is crucial for mapping out the space of contemplative practices. In short, even though computational modeling has not yet been used extensively, we think this approach can make important contributions to the field of meditation research.
PMID: 30428402 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Crosslinked clots formed independently of factor XIII and without fibrinogen-to-fibrin conversion – is this a liver-specific phenomenon?
J Thromb Haemost. 2018 Nov 09;:
Authors: Lisman T
Both basic and applied studies dealing with aspects of hemostasis in liver diseases have spurred significant controversy over the last two decades. Clinically, we have learnt that patients with liver diseases do not necessarily have a hemostatic defect resulting in a bleeding tendency. Instead, these patients appear in hemostatic balance due to a decline in both pro- and antihemostatic pathways, and may experience both bleeding and thrombotic complications when this reset hemostatic balance is offset. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 30412653 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Posted in Report
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Joost Meijer: De nieuw geïdentificeerde auto-immuunziekte nonbulleus pemfigoïd komt waarschijnlijk veel vaker voor onder ouderen dan tot nu toe werd …
Perceiving affordances in sports through a momentum lens.
Hum Mov Sci. 2018 Oct 25;62:124-133
Authors: Den Hartigh RJR, Van der Sluis JK, Zaal FTJM
In this experimental study, we tested whether athletes’ judgments of affordances and of environmental features vary with psychological momentum (PM). We recruited golf, hockey, and tennis players, who were assigned to a positive or negative momentum condition. We designed a golf course on which participants made practice putts, after which they were asked to place the ball at their maximum “puttable” distance and to judge the hole size. Next, participants played a golf match against an opponent, in which the first to take a lead of 5 points would win the match. Participants were told that they could win a point by making the putt or by being closest to the hole. They wore visual occlusion goggles to prevent them from seeing the actual result, and the experimenter manipulated the scoring pattern to induce positive or negative PM. Participants in the positive momentum condition came back from a four-point lag to a four-point lead, whereas those in the negative momentum condition underwent the opposite scenario. We then asked the participants again to indicate their maximum puttable distance from the hole and to judge the hole size. After the manipulation, participants judged the maximum puttable distance to be longer in the positive momentum condition and shorter in the negative momentum condition. For the hole-size judgments, there were no significant effects. These results provide first indications for the idea that athletes’ affordances change when they experience positive PM compared to negative PM. This sheds a new light on the dynamics of perception-action processes and PM in sports.
PMID: 30384180 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Posted in Hum Mov Sci
The effects of a brief meaning in life intervention on the incentive salience of alcohol.
Addict Behav. 2018 Oct 26;90:107-111
Authors: Ostafin BD, Feyel N
There is an increasing body of evidence that life meaning is inversely related to alcohol consumption. Much of this research is cross-sectional and few studies have examined mechanisms for the inverse relation. The current study investigated whether a brief meaning intervention would lead to reduced incentive salience of alcohol. Seventy undergraduate students who reported regular alcohol consumption were assigned either to control or a meaning condition, which involved thinking about and committing to pursue intrinsically valued goals. The incentive salience of alcohol was operationalized as the extent to which alcohol cues interfered with the correct completion of an alcohol Stroop task. The results indicated that the meaning intervention led to reduced incentive salience as measured by alcohol Stroop errors, but not incentive salience as measured by reaction time. The findings suggest that incentive salience may be one mechanism through which individuals with greater life meaning regulate their drinking behavior.
PMID: 30384189 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Posted in Addict Behav