Sexual dimorphism in the genetic influence on human childlessness.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2017 Sep;25(9):1067-1074
Authors: Verweij RM, Mills MC, Tropf FC, Veenstra R, Nyman A, Snieder H
Previous research has found a genetic component of human reproduction and childlessness. Others have argued that the heritability of reproduction is counterintuitive due to a frequent misinterpretation that additive genetic variance in reproductive fitness should be close to zero. Yet it is plausible that different genetic loci operate in male and female fertility in the form of sexual dimorphism and that these genes are passed on to the next generation. This study examines the extent to which genetic factors influence childlessness and provides an empirical test of genetic sexual dimorphism. Data from the Swedish Twin Register (N=9942) is used to estimate a classical twin model, a genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) model on twins and estimates polygenic scores of age at first birth on childlessness. Results show that the variation in individual differences in childlessness is explained by genetic differences for 47% in the twin model and 59% for women and 56% for men using the GREML model. Using a polygenic score (PGS) of age at first birth (AFB), the odds of remaining childless are around 1.25 higher for individuals with 1 SD higher score on the AFB PGS, but only for women. We find that different sets of genes influence childlessness in men and in women. These findings provide insight into why people remain childless and give evidence of genetic sexual dimorphism.
PMID: 28794429 [PubMed – in process]
Cognitive behavioral therapy and predictors of weight loss in bariatric surgery patients.
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2017 Aug 08;:
Authors: Paul L, van der Heiden C, Hoek HW
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. However, 20-30% of patients undergoing bariatric surgery experience premature weight stabilization or weight regain postoperatively. We report on the recent literature of predictors of weight loss and the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in bariatric patients.
RECENT FINDINGS: Preoperative disordered eating behaviors do not appear to be significantly predictive of postoperative weight loss. Postoperative disordered eating behaviors, eating disorders, and depressive symptoms have been found to be associated with less optimal weight loss results. Recent studies show that CBT can contribute in reducing disordered eating behaviors and depressive symptoms. Some studies also show that pre and postoperative CBT interventions can promote weight loss. New applications of CBT such as by telephone, internet, or virtual reality might contribute to more accessible and low-cost treatments for the large group of bariatric patients worldwide.
SUMMARY: CBT seems to be effective in reducing risk factors for weight regain after bariatric surgery, such as disordered eating behavior and depression. Controlled studies with long-term follow-up and larger sample sizes are needed to investigate the long-term effect of CBT interventions on weight loss results and psychological well-being.
PMID: 28795980 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
The effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of financial decision-making.
PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0182620
Authors: Bangma DF, Fuermaier ABM, Tucha L, Tucha O, Koerts J
OBJECTIVES: Financial decision-making (FDM) is crucial for independent living. Due to cognitive decline that accompanies normal aging, older adults might have difficulties in some aspects of FDM. However, an improved knowledge, personal experience and affective decision-making, which are also related to normal aging, may lead to a stable or even improved age-related performance in some other aspects of FDM. Therefore, the present explorative study examines the effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of FDM.
METHODS: One-hundred and eighty participants (range 18-87 years) were assessed with eight FDM tests and several standard neuropsychological tests. Age effects were evaluated using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The validity of the prediction models was examined by internal validation (i.e. bootstrap resampling procedure) as well as external validation on another, independent, sample of participants (n = 124). Multiple regression and correlation analyses were applied to investigate the mediation effect of standard measures of cognition on the observed effects of age on FDM.
RESULTS: On a relatively basic level of FDM (e.g., paying bills or using FDM styles) no significant effects of aging were found. However more complex FDM, such as making decisions in accordance with specific rules, becomes more difficult with advancing age. Furthermore, an older age was found to be related to a decreased sensitivity for impulsive buying. These results were confirmed by the internal and external validation analyses. Mediation effects of numeracy and planning were found to explain parts of the association between one aspect of FDM (i.e. Competence in decision rules) and age; however, these cognitive domains were not able to completely explain the relation between age and FDM.
CONCLUSION: Normal aging has a negative influence on a complex aspect of FDM, however, other aspects appear to be unaffected by normal aging or improve.
PMID: 28792973 [PubMed – in process]
Posted in PLoS One
Tagged PubMed, TOP25
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Review of Known Environmental Protective and Risk Factors Involved.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017 Aug 02;:
Authors: van der Sloot KWJ, Amini M, Peters V, Dijkstra G, Alizadeh BZ
Inflammatory bowel diseases consisting of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to genetic susceptibility and disturbances of the microbiome, environmental exposures forming the exposome play an important role. Starting at birth, the cumulative effect of different environmental exposures combined with a predetermined genetic susceptibility is thought to cause inflammatory bowel disease. All these environmental factors are part of a Western lifestyle, suiting the high incidence rates in Europe and the United States. Whereas receiving breastfeeding, evidence of a Helicobacter pylori infection and vitamin D are important protective factors in Crohn’s disease as well as ulcerative colitis, increased hygiene, experiencing a bacterial gastroenteritis in the past, urban living surroundings, air pollution, the use of antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and oral contraceptives are likely to be the most important risk factors for both diseases. Current cigarette smoking yields a divergent effect by protecting against ulcerative colitis but increasing risk of Crohn’s disease, whereas former smoking increases chances of both diseases. This review gives a clear overview of the current state of knowledge concerning the exposome. Future studies should focus on measuring this exposome yielding the possibility of combining all involved factors to one exposome risk score and our knowledge on genetic susceptibility.
PMID: 28777099 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Evidence-based clinical guidelines for eating disorders: international comparison.
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2017 Aug 01;:
Authors: Hilbert A, Hoek H, Schmidt R
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders.
RECENT FINDINGS: Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The international comparison demonstrated notable commonalities and differences among these current clinical guidelines. Consistency across guidelines was greatest for treatments with a larger evidence base, while those with a lower evidence base had recommendations that varied considerably.
SUMMARY: Evidence-based clinical guidelines represent an important step toward the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments into clinical practice. Despite advances in clinical research on eating disorders, a growing body of literature demonstrates that individuals with eating disorders often do not receive an evidence-based treatment for their disorder. Regarding the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments, current guidelines do endorse the main empirically validated treatment approaches with considerable agreement, but additional recommendations are largely inconsistent. An increased evidence base is critical in offering clinically useful and reliable guidance for the treatment of eating disorders. Because developing and updating clinical guidelines is time-consuming and complex, an international coordination of guideline development, for example, across the European Union, would be desirable.
PMID: 28777107 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Revealing Oft-cited but Unpublished Papers of Colin Pittendrigh and Coworkers.
J Biol Rhythms. 2017 Jul 01;:748730417716685
Authors: Tackenberg MC, Johnson CH, Page TL, Daan S
Among the scientific resources that Colin Pittendrigh passed on to his colleagues after his death in 1996 were two unpublished papers. These manuscripts, developed first in the mid-1960s and continually updated and refined through the late 1970s, centered on the development and experimental exploration of a model of circadian entrainment combining aspects of the well-known parametric (continuous) and nonparametric (discrete) models of entrainment. These texts reveal the experimental work surrounding Pittendrigh’s determination of the limits of entrainment and the explanation of the bistability phenomenon. These manuscripts are being made publicly available in their final format (February 1978) as supplementary material to this introduction.
PMID: 28766460 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Structural Biology of the Immune Checkpoint Receptor PD-1 and Its Ligands PD-L1/PD-L2.
Structure. 2017 Aug 01;25(8):1163-1174
Authors: Zak KM, Grudnik P, Magiera K, Dömling A, Dubin G, Holak TA
Cancer cells can avoid and suppress immune responses through activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint proteins, such as PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. Blocking the activities of these proteins with monoclonal antibodies, and thus restoring T cell function, has delivered breakthrough therapies against cancer. In this review, we describe the latest work on structural characterization of the checkpoint proteins, their interactions with cognate ligands and with therapeutic antibodies. Structures of the extracellular portions of these proteins reveal that they all have a similar modular structure, composed of small domains similar in topology to the domains found in antibodies. Structural basis for blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction by small molecules is illustrated with the compound BMS-202 that binds to and induces dimerization of PD-L1.
PMID: 28768162 [PubMed – in process]
Posted in Structure
Tagged PubMed, TOP25
Interim FDG-PET in lymphoma, a questionable practice in hematology.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017 Jul 31;:
Authors: Adams HJA, Kwee TC
PMID: 28761975 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]