Mensen met de chronische longziekte COPD hebben gemiddeld een laag dagelijks fysiek activiteitenniveau. Dagelijkse fysieke activiteiten kunnen …
Zorgverleners moeten bij het beantwoorden van de vraag of iemand een hoog cholesterol heeft beter rekening houden met de leeftijd en het geslacht. …
Mensen met een lage genetische rusthartslag, leven langer. Dat concludeert Ruben Eppinga in zijn proefschrift, waarin hij onderzoek beschrijft aan …
Differentiating between ADHD and ASD in childhood: some directions for practitioners.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 May 12;:
Authors: Rommelse N, Visser J, Hartman C
PMID: 29754280 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
The importance of contextual, relational and cognitive factors for novice nurses’ emotional state and affective commitment to the profession. A multilevel study.
J Adv Nurs. 2018 May 13;:
Authors: Hoeve YT, Brouwer J, Roodbol PF, Kunnen S
AIM: This study explored the effects of contextual, relational and cognitive factors derived from novice nurses’ work experiences on emotions and affective commitment to the profession.
BACKGROUND: With an increasing demand for well-trained nurses, it is imperative to investigate which work-related factors most affect their commitment to develop effective strategies to improve work conditions, work satisfaction and emotional attachment.
DESIGN: A repeated-measures within subjects design.
METHODS: From September 2013 – September 2014 eighteen novice nurses described work-related experiences in unstructured diaries and scored their emotional state and affective commitment on a scale. The themes that emerged from the 18 diaries (with 580 diary entries) were quantified as contextual, relational and cognitive factors. Contextual factors refer to complexity of care and existential events; relational factors to experiences with patients, support from colleagues, supervisors and physicians; cognitive factors to nurses’ perceived competence.
RESULTS: The first multilevel regression analysis, based on the 18 diaries with 580 entries, showed that complexity of care, lack of support and lack of competence were negatively related to novice nurses’ affective commitment, whereas received support was positively related. The next multilevel regression analyses showed that all contextual, relational and cognitive factors were either related to negative or positive emotions.
CONCLUSION: To retain novice nurses in the profession, it is important to provide support and feedback. This enables novice nurses to deal with the complexity of care and feelings of incompetence and to develop a professional commitment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 29754390 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Ieder jaar worden er in Nederland tussen de 110 en 140 levertransplantaties uitgevoerd. Ook overlijden er ieder jaar tientallen mensen omdat er …
Early human motor development: From variation to the ability to vary and adapt.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 May 09;:
Authors: Hadders-Algra M
This review summarizes early human motor development. From early fetal age motor behavior is based on spontaneous neural activity: activity of networks in the brainstem and spinal cord that is modulated by supraspinal activity. The supraspinal activity, first primarily brought about by the cortical subplate, later by the cortical plate, induces movement variation. Initially, movement variation especially serves exploration; its associated afferent information is primarily used to sculpt the developing nervous system, and less to adapt motor behavior. In the next phase, beginning at function-specific ages, movement variation starts to serve adaptation. In sucking and swallowing, this phase emerges shortly before term age. In speech, gross and fine motor development, it emerges from 3-4 months post-term onwards, i.e., when developmental focus in the primary sensory and motor cortices has shifted to the permanent cortical circuitries. With increasing age and increasing trial-and-error exploration, the infant improves its ability to use adaptive and efficicient forms of upright gross motor behavior, manual activities and vocalizations belonging to the native language.
PMID: 29752957 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Determinants of Heart Rate Variability in the General Population: The Lifelines Cohort Study Determinants of Heart Rate Variability.
Heart Rhythm. 2018 May 09;:
Authors: Tegegne BS, Man T, van Roon AM, Riese H, Snieder H
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important marker of heart health with low values reflecting reduced vagal control of the heart rhythm.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent a broad range of demographic (age, sex), lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, alcohol use) and psychosocial factors (stress, social wellbeing, neuroticism) explained individual differences in HRV in the general population.
METHODS: Using baseline data of 10 second electrocardiograms (ECG) from the Lifelines cohort study (n=149,205;58.7% female; mean age [SD]: 44.6[13.2] year), we calculated the Root Mean Square of Successive Differences (RMSSD) between adjacent inter-beat intervals as an index of cardiac parasympathetic nervous system activity. We also calculated RMSSD adjusted for its dependency on heart rate (cRMSSD). The association of demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors with RMSSD was assessed using hierarchical linear regression models adjusting for potential confounding effects of medication use, disease and body mass index.
RESULTS: HRV strongly declined with age and was consistently higher in women. These demographic factors together explained 17.4% of the variance in RMSSD and 21.9% in cRMSSD. Physical activity, alcohol use and smoking showed some significant associations with RMSSD, but stress, social well-being and neuroticism did not. Adding lifestyle and psychosocial factors to the model additionally explained less than 0.50% of the variance.
CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex were the most important determinants in this very large general population cohort explaining almost one fifth of the individual differences in HRV. The additional contribution of lifestyle and psychosocial factors was negligible.
PMID: 29753022 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Perceptual Discrimination of Speaking Style Under Cochlear Implant Simulation.
Ear Hear. 2018 May 08;:
Authors: Tamati TN, Janse E, Başkent D
OBJECTIVES: Real-life, adverse listening conditions involve a great deal of speech variability, including variability in speaking style. Depending on the speaking context, talkers may use a more casual, reduced speaking style or a more formal, careful speaking style. Attending to fine-grained acoustic-phonetic details characterizing different speaking styles facilitates the perception of the speaking style used by the talker. These acoustic-phonetic cues are poorly encoded in cochlear implants (CIs), potentially rendering the discrimination of speaking style difficult. As a first step to characterizing CI perception of real-life speech forms, the present study investigated the perception of different speaking styles in normal-hearing (NH) listeners with and without CI simulation.
DESIGN: The discrimination of three speaking styles (conversational reduced speech, speech from retold stories, and carefully read speech) was assessed using a speaking style discrimination task in two experiments. NH listeners classified sentence-length utterances, produced in one of the three styles, as either formal (careful) or informal (conversational). Utterances were presented with unmodified speaking rates in experiment 1 (31 NH, young adult Dutch speakers) and with modified speaking rates set to the average rate across all utterances in experiment 2 (28 NH, young adult Dutch speakers). In both experiments, acoustic noise-vocoder simulations of CIs were used to produce 12-channel (CI-12) and 4-channel (CI-4) vocoder simulation conditions, in addition to a no-simulation condition without CI simulation.
RESULTS: In both experiments 1 and 2, NH listeners were able to reliably discriminate the speaking styles without CI simulation. However, this ability was reduced under CI simulation. In experiment 1, participants showed poor discrimination of speaking styles under CI simulation. Listeners used speaking rate as a cue to make their judgements, even though it was not a reliable cue to speaking style in the study materials. In experiment 2, without differences in speaking rate among speaking styles, listeners showed better discrimination of speaking styles under CI simulation, using additional cues to complete the task.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the present study demonstrate that perceiving differences in three speaking styles under CI simulation is a difficult task because some important cues to speaking style are not fully available in these conditions. While some cues like speaking rate are available, this information alone may not always be a reliable indicator of a particular speaking style. Some other reliable speaking styles cues, such as degraded acoustic-phonetic information and variability in speaking rate within an utterance, may be available but less salient. However, as in experiment 2, listeners’ perception of speaking styles may be modified if they are constrained or trained to use these additional cues, which were more reliable in the context of the present study. Taken together, these results suggest that dealing with speech variability in real-life listening conditions may be a challenge for CI users.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
PMID: 29742545 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Posted in Ear Hear
Tagged PubMed, TOP25
Wat zijn de mogelijkheden en beperkingen van de minder belastende FES-PET scan voor borstkankerpatiënten? Die vraag stond centraal in het …
Het eiwit SERF2 heeft invloed op eiwitstapeling in de hersenen bij muizen met symptomen van neurodegeneratieve ziekten. Dat toont Esther Stroo-van …
Iana Turcan verrichte samen met collega’s van het UMCG onderzoek naar de onderliggende genetische mutatie en karakterisatie van wat onderzoekers ‘EB …
Er zijn verschillende processen in ons lichaam die de groei en het voortbestaan van de cel regelen. Een belangrijke schakel hierin is mTOR, dat …
The presence of your absence: A conditioning theory of grief.
Behav Res Ther. 2018 Apr 24;106:18-27
Authors: Boddez Y
I present a conditioning theory of grief. From conditioning research on appetitive disorders (e.g., addiction and binge eating), I borrow the concept cue-elicited craving. More precisely, the theory postulates that, throughout a life together, a variety of cues become associated with the presence of the loved one and that because of this these cues can trigger craving and (an action tendency for) searching for the deceased. Starting from this perspective, I additionally invoke extinction phenomena to explain the possible persistence of grief. Arguably, the theory has good heuristic value, because it allows to explain a variety of grief symptoms and to bring together existing knowledge in a unifying learning framework. In addition, the theory has good predictive value, because it opens the door to considering new research and treatment directions.
PMID: 29723712 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]