Marloes Oldenkamp: Caregiving experiences of informal caregivers Negatieve ervaringen van mantelzorgers hangen vaak samen met stressfactoren, …
Klaske van Kammen: Neuromuscular control of Lokomat guided gait De looprobot Lokomat, die gebruikt kan worden voor revalidatie, kan effectief zijn …
Children with autism spectrum disorder show pronoun reversals in interpretation.
J Abnorm Psychol. 2018 Feb;127(2):228-238
Authors: Overweg J, Hartman CA, Hendriks P
Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6-12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children with ASD and 43 typically developing (TD) peers. We contrasted children’s interpretation of I and you in indirect and direct speech reports, with the latter type requiring an additional perspective shift. To examine which cognitive processes are involved in pronoun interpretation, additional tasks were administered to measure Theory of Mind (ToM) understanding, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. We found that children with ASD showed more problems than TD children interpreting pronouns in direct speech, resulting in pronoun reversals in interpretation. Children with ASD hardly improved with age. Older children with ASD thus showed more pronoun reversals than did their TD peers. ToM understanding, working memory, IQ, and verbal ability, but not inhibition and flexibility, were associated with pronoun interpretation. ToM understanding in particular was associated with correct pronoun interpretation in older TD children relative to younger TD children, but this improvement was not found in children with ASD. These findings indicate that pronoun reversals most likely result from perspective-shifting difficulties. We conclude that pronoun reversals are more pronounced in individuals with ASD, occur beyond early development, and require sufficient cognitive resources. The relation with ToM understanding, but not inhibition and flexibility, suggests that pronoun reversals are best classified as a social communication problem in the diagnosis of ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record
PMID: 29528676 [PubMed – in process]
Toward personalized treatment of hallucinations.
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2018 Mar 09;:
Authors: Sommer IE, Kleijer H, Hugdahl K
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hallucinations are common and often stressful experiences, occurring in all sensory modalities. They frequently complicate many disorders or situations, such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, hearing or vision loss, intoxications and delirium. Although psychoeducation, coping techniques and psychotherapy may be broadly applicable, they do not address a specific underlying brain mechanism. Pharmacotherapy may effectively alleviate hallucinations if the corresponding mechanism is present, whereas in its absence, may only cause harmful side effects. Therefore, pharmacotherapy needs input about underlying brain mechanisms.
RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings suggest new underlying neurobiological mechanisms as possible therapeutic targets in selected patients, for example increased glutamate levels. In addition, neuronavigation can guide repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations to target-specific cortical regions.
SUMMARY: We propose the use of neuroimaging methods to better understand the interaction of different mechanisms underlying hallucinations and to use this knowledge to guide pharmacotherapy or focal brain stimulation in a personalized manner. In addition, we suggest evidence from various imaging modalities should converge to answer a research question. We believe this ‘convergence of evidence’ avoids the problem of overreliance on single and isolated findings.
PMID: 29528896 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Spinal Cord Ischaemia in Endovascular Thoracic and Thoraco-abdominal Aortic Repair: Review of Preventive Strategies.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2018 Mar 07;:
Authors: Dijkstra ML, Vainas T, Zeebregts CJ, Hooft L, van der Laan MJ
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of spinal cord ischaemia (SCI) and subsequent paraplegia after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) and thoraco-abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair is estimated to be between 2.5% and 8%. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of SCI preventive strategies in TEVAR and thoraco-abdominal repair and recommend an optimal strategy.
METHODS: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies on TEVAR, thoraco-abdominal endovascular repair, and the use of SCI preventive measures. The review was reported according to the PRISMA statement.
RESULTS: The final analysis included 43 studies (7168 patients). All studies are cohort studies (non-comparative cohorts n = 37, comparative cohorts n = 6) and largely performed retrospectively (n = 27). The included studies had an average MINORS score of 9 (range 6-13) for non-comparative studies and 15.5 (range 12-18) for comparative studies. Transient SCI occurred in 5.7% (450/7,168, 95% CI 4.5-6.9%), permanent SCI in 2.2% (232/7,168, 95% CI 1.6-2.8%). There was a trend towards increased SCI incidence for more “high risk” cohorts. Avoidance of hypotension resulted in a slightly lower permanent SCI rate 1.8% (102/4216, 95% CI 1.2-2.3%) than the overall cohort. A very low SCI estimate (transient and permanent) was found in the subgroup of studies (2 studies, n = 248) using (mild) peri-operative hypothermia (transient SCI 0.8%, permanent SCI 0.4%). In the subgroup using temporary permissive endoleak, there was a transient SCI estimate (15.4%), with a permanent SCI estimate of 4.8%. The remaining preventive measures did not significantly impact transient or permanent SCI estimates.
CONCLUSION: Low overall transient and permanent SCI rates are achieved during endovascular thoracic and thoraco-abdominal aortic repair. Based on the presented data, the use of selective spinal fluid drainage in high risk patients seems justified. Peri-operative hypotension should be avoided and treated where possible. The use of mild hypothermia is promising in small cohorts, but requires further evaluation. Further high quality data are essential to establish a definitive preventive strategy.
PMID: 29525741 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Autotransplantation of teeth with incomplete root formation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Clin Oral Investig. 2018 Mar 10;:
Authors: Rohof ECM, Kerdijk W, Jansma J, Livas C, Ren Y
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the rates of survival and success and the complications related to autotransplantation of teeth with incomplete root formation. Additionally, we attempted to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of tooth autotransplantation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search for all data published until July 2016 was conducted. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were specified. Risk of bias was assessed with the Newcastle checklist. Meta-analysis was performed by using the DerSimonian-Laird random effect model. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates and the weighted estimated survival, success, and complication rates per year were calculated.
RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were included for analysis. The survival rates reported after 1, 5, and 10 years were 97.4, 97.8, and 96.3%, respectively. The annual weighted estimated survival rate (98.2%), success rate (96.6%), and complication rates in terms of ankylosis (2.0%), root resorption (2.9%), and pulp necrosis (3.3%) were analyzed. No firm conclusions could be drawn with respect to the prognostic factors due to insufficient evidence of high quality.
CONCLUSION: The survival and success rates of autotransplantation of teeth with incomplete root formation were high (> 95%), with a low rate of complications (< 5%).
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Current evidence from the literature on autotransplantation of teeth with incomplete root formation shows favorable survival and success rates and low complication rates, indicating it is a reliable treatment option.
PMID: 29525924 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Jorijn Hornman: Stability of development and behavior of preterm children Kinderen die te vroeg geboren zijn, hebben of krijgen op de basisschool …
Anxiety disorders and figural fluency: A measure of executive function.
J Affect Disord. 2018 Feb 17;234:38-44
Authors: Gulpers B, Lugtenburg A, Zuidersma M, Verhey FRJ, Voshaar RCO
BACKGROUND: Anxiety possibly interferes with executive functioning, although most studies rely on anxiety symptoms or lack control for comorbid depression. The objective of the present study is to examine the association between executive functioning and (individual) anxiety disorders with ak,ld without controlling for depression.
METHOD: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, agoraphobia, social phobia, as well as depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview in 82,360 community-dwelling people participating in the Lifelines cohort. Figural fluency as a measure of executive functioning was assessed with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFTT). Linear regression analyses with the RFFT score as the dependent variable and psychiatric diagnosis as independent variables (dummies) were performed, adjusted for potential confounders. Multivariate results are presented with and without adjustment for depression.
RESULTS: Presence of any anxiety disorder was associated with worse performance on the RFFT (B = – 0.78, SE = 0.32, p = .015), independent of depression. No dose-response relationship with the number of anxiety disorders was found. Only agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder were significantly associated with the RFFT score in the multivariate models. Agoraphobia remained significant when further adjusted for depressive disorder (B = – 1.14, SE = 0.41, p < .01), while GAD did not (B = 0.013, SE = 0.431, p = .975).
LIMITATIONS: Executive function was tested by only one measure, namely figural fluency.
CONCLUSION: Agoraphobia is associated with worse executive functioning. Treatment of agoraphobia could be influenced by the executive dysfunction which clinicians should be aware of when regular treatment fails.
PMID: 29522942 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Individual differences in satisfaction with activity-based work environments.
PLoS One. 2018;13(3):e0193878
Authors: Hoendervanger JG, Ernst AF, Albers CJ, Mobach MP, Van Yperen NW
Satisfaction with activity-based work environments (ABW environments) often falls short of expectations, with striking differences among individual workers. A better understanding of these differences may provide clues for optimising satisfaction with ABW environments and associated organisational outcomes. The current study was designed to examine how specific psychological needs, job characteristics, and demographic variables relate to satisfaction with ABW environments. Survey data collected at seven organizations in the Netherlands (N = 551) were examined using correlation and regression analyses. Significant correlates of satisfaction with ABW environments were found: need for relatedness (positive), need for privacy (negative), job autonomy (positive), social interaction (positive), internal mobility (positive), and age (negative). Need for privacy appeared to be a powerful predictor of individual differences in satisfaction with ABW environments. These findings underline the importance of providing work environments that allow for different work styles, in alignment with different psychological need strengths, job characteristics, and demographic variables. Improving privacy, especially for older workers and for workers high in need for privacy, seems key to optimizing satisfaction with ABW environments.
PMID: 29518104 [PubMed – in process]
Posted in PLoS One
Tagged PubMed, TOP25
Risk stratification in acute heart failure: reply.
Eur J Heart Fail. 2018 Mar 07;:
Authors: Demissei BG, Voors AA
PMID: 29512236 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Topographical changes in photo-responsive liquid crystal films: a computational analysis.
Soft Matter. 2018 Mar 07;:
Authors: Liu L, Onck PR
Switchable materials in response to external stimuli serve as building blocks to construct microscale functionalized actuators and sensors. Azobenzene-modified liquid crystal (LC) polymeric networks, that combine liquid crystalline orientational order and elasticity, reversibly undergo conformational changes powered by light. We present a computational framework to describe photo-induced topographical transformations of azobenzene-modified LC glassy polymer coatings. A nonlinear light penetration model is combined with an opto-mechanical constitutive relation to simulate various ordered and corrugated topographical textures resulting from aligned or randomly distributed LC molecule orientations. Our results shed light on the fundamental physical mechanisms of light-triggered surface undulations and can be used as guidelines to optimize surface modulation and roughness in emerging fields that involve haptics interfacing, friction control and wetting manipulation.
PMID: 29512661 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
The acute effects of cocoa flavanols on temporal and spatial attention.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018 Mar 03;:
Authors: Karabay A, Saija JD, Field DT, Akyürek EG
In this study, we investigated how the acute physiological effects of cocoa flavanols might result in specific cognitive changes, in particular in temporal and spatial attention. To this end, we pre-registered and implemented a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and baseline-controlled crossover design. A sample of 48 university students participated in the study and each of them completed the experimental tasks in four conditions (baseline, placebo, low dose, and high-dose flavanol), administered in separate sessions with a 1-week washout interval. A rapid serial visual presentation task was used to test flavanol effects on temporal attention and integration, and a visual search task was similarly employed to investigate spatial attention. Results indicated that cocoa flavanols improved visual search efficiency, reflected by reduced reaction time. However, cocoa flavanols did not facilitate temporal attention nor integration, suggesting that flavanols may affect some aspects of attention, but not others. Potential underlying mechanisms are discussed.
PMID: 29502273 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]